National Language of India: Important Details and Facts

By Ashwini Shivhare|Updated : September 7th, 2022

National Language of India: Several hundred languages are spoken in India. The majority of languages spoken in India are from the Indo-Aryan and Dravidian families, however, some Indo-European languages are also spoken and understood.

The Indo-Aryan languages, which include Hindi, Rajasthani, Gujarati, Marathi, Bengali, Oriya, Assamese, Sanskrit, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Punjabi, are spoken by around three-fourths of India's people. Southern Indian languages such as Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, and Malayalam are members of the Dravidian family.

English is the most commonly spoken Indo-European language.

Official Languages of India

In 1950, the Indian Constitution designated Hindi in Devanagari Script as the official language of the union. The Indian Constitution provided that English would continue to be used for all official purposes of the Union until January 25, 1965, however, a complete switch to Hindi was not possible within the time frame specified. As a result, English, along with Hindi, is still utilized for all official purposes as an associate official language.

National Language of India

According to the Constitution, India does not have a national language, although Hindi and English are the official languages.

According to Article 343 of the Indian Constitution:

(1) Hindi written in Devanagari script shall be the official language of the Union of India.

(2) Notwithstanding anything in section (1), the English language will continue to be used for all official purposes of the Union of India for a period of fifteen years from the date of commencement of this Constitution:

During the aforementioned term, the President may, by order, authorize the use of the Hindi language in addition to the English language and the Devanagari form of numerals in addition to the international form of Indian numerals for any of the Union's official purposes.

(3) Notwithstanding anything in this article, Parliament may, by legislation, allow for the use of (a) the English language or (b) the Devanagari form of numerals after the said term of fifteen years, for such purposes as the law may specify.

The Official Languages Act of 1963 provided for the continued use of English alongside Hindi in the Indian government indefinitely until legislation to alter it was approved.

What is the Official Language Act of 1963?

It is an Act to provide for the languages that may be used for official purposes of the Union of India, for Parliamentary business, for Central and State Acts, and for a specific purpose in High Courts.

Scheduled Languages of India

The constitution's eighth schedule specifies 22 major languages.

List of Scheduled Languages of India

  1. Assamese
  2. Bengali
  3. Bodo
  4. Dogri
  5. Gujarath
  6. Hindi
  7. Kannada
  8. Kashmiri
  9. Konkani
  10. Maithili
  11. Punjabi
  12. Sanskrit
  13. Santhali
  14. Sindhi
  15. Tamil
  16. Telugu
  17. Urdu
  18. Malayalam
  19. Manipuri
  20. Marathi
  21. Nepali
  22. Oriya 

Language of Judiciary

The Supreme Court of India's sessions must be conducted in English, according to the Constitution.

Classical Languages

Tamil (2004), Sanskrit (2005), Kannada and Telugu are the languages that have been deemed classical based on the advice of a committee of linguistic specialists appointed by the Ministry of Culture, Government of India (2008). 

List of 28 Indian States and Their Official Languages

States

Official Language

Language

Andhra Pradesh

Telugu

Telugu, Urdu, Hindi, Tamil and Marathi

Arunachal Pradesh

English

Nishi, Adi, Bengali, Nepali and Hindi

Assam

Assamese

Assamese, Bengali, Hindi, Bodo, Nepali

Bihar

Hindi

Hindi (Bhojpuri and Magadhi dialects), Maithili, Urdu, Bengali and Santali

Chattisgarh

Hindi

Hindi (Chhattisgarhi), Odia, Bengali, Telugu and Marathi

Goa

Konkani

Konkani, Marathi, Hindi, Kannada and Urdu

Gujarat

Gujarati

Gujarati, Hindi, Sindhi, Marathi, and Urdu

Haryana

Hindi

Hindi (Haryanvi and Mewati dialects), Punjabi, Urdu, Bengali, and Maithili

Himachal Pradesh

Hindi

Hindi, Punjabi, Nepali, Kashmiri, and Dogri

Jharkhand

Hindi

Hindi (Bhojpuri, Magadhi, and Nagpuri dialects), Santhali, Bengali, Urdu and Odia

Karnataka

Kannada

Kannada, Urdu, Telugu, Tamil, and Marathi

Kerala

Malayalam

Malayalam, Tamil, Tulu, Kannada and Konkani

Madhya

Pradesh

Hindi

Hindi, Marathi, Urdu, Sindhi, and Gujarati

Maharashtra

Marathi

Marathi

Manipur

Meitei (Manipuri)

Manipuri, Nepali, Hindi, and Bengali

Meghalaya

English

Khasi, Garo, Bengali Nepali and Hindi

Mizoram

Mizo, English & Hindi

Mizo, English, Hindi, Manipuri, and Chakma

Nagaland

English

Ao, Konyak, Angami, Sema and Lotha

Odisha

Odia

Odia, Bengali, Telugu Hindi and Santali

Punjab

Punjabi

Punjabi and Hindi

Rajasthan

Hindi

Rajasthani and Hindi

Sikkim

English

Bhutia, Hindi, Nepali, Lepcha, Limbu

Tamil Nadu

Tamil

Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Urdu, and Malayalam

Telangana

Telugu

Telugu, Urdu, Marathi Kannada and Hindi

Tripura

Bengali, English & Kokborok

Bengali, Tripuri, Manipuri, Kakborak

Uttar Pradesh

Hindi

Hindi (including Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Braj Bhasha and Khari Boli dialects)

Uttarakhand

Hindi

Hindi (including the Garhwali, Kumaoni, and Jaunsari dialects)

West Bengal

Bengali

Bengali

List of Union Territories and Their Official Languages

Union TerritoriesOfficial Languages
Andaman and Nicobar IslandsHindi, English
ChandigarhEnglish
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and DiuGujarati, Konkani, Marathi, Hindi
DelhiHindi, English
LakshadweepMalayalam
Jammu and KashmirKashmiri, Dogri, Hindi, Urdu, English
LadakhHindi, English
PuducherryTamil, French, English
Related Articles:
SSC & Railway ExamsSSC CPO Exam
SSC CGL ExamSSC MTS Exam
SSC CHSL ExamSSC Steno Exam
SSC GD Constable Exam 

All The Best !!!

DREAM, STRIVE & SUCCEED With US!

Check OUT: 

Prepare for SSC Exams 2021-22 with BYJU'S Exam Prep Course 

SSC Success Batch: A comprehensive 10 Months Foundation Course | Available in English and Hindi 

3 Crore+ Registered Aspirants | 2.5 Crore Downloads  | 50,000+ Selectionsbyjusexamprep

Ace Your Preparation Subscribe to BYJU'S Exam Prep Test Series

Comments

write a comment

FAQs

  • According to the Constitution, India does not have a national language, although Hindi and English are the official languages.

  • There are 22 languages mentioned in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution.

  •  Article 343 of Indian Constitution states that English and Hindi are the official languages of India

  • No, Hindi is not the National Language of India. Hindi and English are the two official languages of India.

SSC & Railway

CGLSSC GDDFCCILCHSLCPONTPCMTSStenoGroup DDelhi PoliceOthersCoursesMock Test

Follow us for latest updates