UPSC Syllabus 2024 – Download Syllabus for IAS Prelims and Mains Exam

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: December 19th, 2023

UPSC Syllabus is a comprehensive and detailed outline of topics from which questions are asked in the Prelims and Mains examinations. It is released every year along with the official notification. UPSC 2024 syllabus has no changes and is similar to the last year. A clear understanding of the UPSC syllabus can help IAS aspirants to plan their preparation strategies for the Prelims and Mains stages of the Civil Services Examination.

The Prelims stage consists of two papers: GS Paper 1 and CSAT. UPSC Mains consist of 4 GS Papers, two optional papers, two Language papers, and one Essay paper. You can download the subject-wise UPSC syllabus PDF for IAS Prelims and Mains from the links provided below.

UPSC Syllabus 2024 PDF

The UPSC Syllabus PDF is a comprehensive document that provides aspirants with a detailed structure of the topics covered in the Prelims and Mains exam, including the various papers and topics that aspirants need to prepare for. Candidates can download the UPSC Syllabus PDF from the direct link provided below.

UPSC Syllabus PDF Download
UPSC GS Syllabus Download PDF
UPSC Syllabus GS Paper 1 Download PDF
UPSC Syllabus GS Paper 2 Download PDF
UPSC Syllabus GS Paper 3 Download PDF
UPSC Syllabus GS 4 Download PDF

The UPSC Syllabus PDF is an essential resource for aspirants preparing for the exam, as it helps them to plan their strategies to focus on the right topics.

UPSC 2024 Syllabus

UPSC Syllabus 2024 covers all important topics to be studied to prepare for the Prelims, Mains, and final interview. It is designed to assess the knowledge, aptitude, and skills of candidates across a wide range of subjects.

UPSC CSE Syllabus covers all the topics and sub-topics that are important for the UPSC exam such as history, geography, polity, economics, environment, aptitude, reasoning, and comprehension skills.

A clear understanding of the UPSC Syllabus is crucial for aspirants preparing for the exam to plan their preparation strategies and succeed in the exam.

Daily Questions for UPSC Prelims 2024 (Syllabus Based) – December 2023

Question 1: Who among the following has bagged the gold in women’s javelin throws in Hangzhou in the Asian Games 2023?

  1. Annu Rani
  2. Parul Chaudhary
  3. Dilhani Lekamge
  4. Lyu Huihui
  5. Deepa Malik

Answer: Annu Rani

Question 2: In September 2023, which of the following states conducted the fourth G20 Infrastructure Working Group meeting under the Indian Presidency?

  1. Andhra Pradesh
  2. Madhya Pradesh
  3. Arunachal Pradesh
  4. Uttar Pradesh
  5. Goa

Answer: Madhya Pradesh

Question 3: In September 2023, in which of the following cities did President Droupadi Murmu inaugurated the first Uttar Pradesh International Trade Show in India Expo Centre and Mart?

  1. Meerut
  2. Agra
  3. Lucknow
  4. Greater Noida
  5. Varanasi

Answer: Greater Noida

Question 4: In September 2023, which of the following countries co-host with India the 13th Indo-Pacific Armies Chiefs Conference IPACC, 3 day conference of Chiefs of Armies and delegates of 35 countries in New Delhi?

  1. Indonesia
  2. Japan
  3. France
  4. United States
  5. Malayasia

Answer: United States

Question 5:Who among the following has been awarded the Nobel Prize 2023 in Physics for their experimental methods that generate attosecond pulses of light for the study of electron dynamics in matter?

  1. Pierre Agostini, Ferenc Krausz, and Anne L’Huillier
  2. Anton Zeilinger, Ferenc Krausz, and Anne L’Huillier
  3. Alain Aspect, Pierre Agostini and Ferenc Krausz
  4. Anton Zeilinger, Ferenc Krausz, and Anne L’Huillier
  5. John Clauser, Alain Aspect and Pierre Agostini

Answer: Pierre Agostini, Ferenc Krausz, and Anne L’Huillier

UPSC Syllabus for Prelims

The UPSC Prelims Exam is the first stage of the UPSC CSE, which is conducted to select candidates for various civil services posts in India. The exam is highly competitive, and candidates need to have a clear understanding of the UPSC Prelims Syllabus in order to prepare effectively. The syllabus for Prelims is divided into:

  • General Studies Paper 1
  • Civil Services Aptitude Test (CSAT)

The UPSC Syllabus for GS Paper 1 covers a wide range of subjects, including current events, history, geography, polity, economics, environment, and general science. The CSAT paper, on the other hand, is designed to test the candidate’s aptitude and reasoning abilities. Candidates must know the IAS syllabus of Prelims in detail because it will give a clear idea of the topics and subjects that will be covered in the exam, and will help them to prepare accordingly.

UPSC Prelims Syllabus Paper 1

The Prelims Exam consists of two papers, with Paper 1 being the General Studies paper. The UPSC Syllabus for Paper 1 is quite comprehensive and covers a wide range of topics. The UPSC Prelims Syllabus for Paper 1 includes Current Events, History, Geography, Polity, Economics, Environment, and General Science. Candidates can check the table below that provides the lists of the topics and subtopics included in the UPSC CSE Syllabus of Prelims for Paper 1:

UPSC Syllabus – Prelims GS Paper 1
Topics Subtopics
Current events of national and international importance International events, Government schemes, Summits, Policies, Major sports events, Important Personalities, etc.
History of India and the Indian National Movement India after Independence, Modern India, Ancient India, Indian National Movement, Medieval India, Freedom Struggle
Indian and World Geography Economic Geography, Social Geography, Physical Geography, Environment and Ecology
Indian Polity and Governance Panchayati Raj, Rights Issues, Constitution of India, Political System, Public Policy
Economic and Social Development Social Sector Initiatives, Sustainable Development, Poverty, Demographics, Inclusion, etc.
General Issues on Environmental Ecology, Biodiversity, and Climate Change Biodiversity, Environmental ecology, Climate change, etc.
General Science Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Applications of Science and Technology, etc.

UPSC CSAT Syllabus 2023

The UPSC Syllabus for the prelims exam consists of two papers, with Paper 2 being the CSAT. The purpose of the CSAT is to test the candidate’s aptitude and reasoning abilities. While Paper 2 is qualifying in nature, candidates still need to score a minimum of 33% in order to qualify for the next stage of the exam. Here is a detailed explanation of the UPSC Syllabus for CSAT:

  • Comprehension: This section tests the candidate’s reading comprehension skills and English language abilities. It includes comprehension passages and questions, vocabulary, and English language skills.
  • Interpersonal skills including communication skills: This section tests the candidate’s ability to effectively communicate and interact with others. It includes effective communication, active listening, verbal and non-verbal communication, etc.
  • Logical reasoning and analytical ability: This section tests the candidate’s ability to think logically and analyze information. It includes critical thinking, analytical reasoning, decision-making, problem-solving, data interpretation, etc.
  • Decision-making and problem-solving: This section tests the candidate’s ability to make decisions and solve problems. It includes decision-making, problem-solving, data analysis, etc.
  • General mental ability: This section tests the candidate’s basic mental abilities. It includes basic numeracy, data interpretation, logical reasoning, etc.

UPSC Mains Syllabus

The UPSC Mains exam is the second stage of the CSE which consists of nine papers, out of which two papers are qualifying in nature, and the marks obtained in these papers will not be counted for ranking. UPSC IAS Syllabus for the Mains exam consists of the syllabus for all the papers, including essays, general studies, and all optional subjects. The seven papers that are counted for ranking are Essay, GS 1, GS 2, GS 3, GS 4, Optional Paper 1, and 2. The two qualifying papers are the Indian language and English. The UPSC Syllabus for Mains covers a wide range of subjects, including Indian Polity, Governance, Economic Development, Environment, Ethics, and Integrity. Candidates can check the table below that provides an overview of the UPSC Syllabus for the IAS Mains exam:

Paper UPSC Subjects
Paper A Indian Language (Qualifying)
Paper B English (Qualifying)
Paper 1 Essay
Paper 2 General Studies 1 – Indian Heritage and Culture, History, and Geography of the World and Society
Paper 3 General Studies 2 – Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice, and International Relations
Paper 4 General Studies 3 – Technology, Economic Development, Biodiversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management
Paper 5 General Studies 4 – Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude
Paper 6 Optional Paper 1
Paper 7 Optional Paper 2

UPSC CSE Syllabus for Paper A

The UPSC Syllabus for Mains consists of nine papers, out of which Paper A is an Indian language paper. This exam is of a qualifying nature and the marks obtained in this paper will not be counted for the final merit ranking. Candidates can choose any of the Indian languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution or English as the language for Paper A. The aim of this paper is to test the candidate’s understanding of the language and its usage. The UPSC Syllabus for Paper A of the mains exam is as follows:

  • Comprehension of given passages
  • Precis writing
  • Usage and vocabulary
  • Short essay
  • Translation from English to the Indian language and vice versa
  • Grammar and basic language rules
  • Writing skills

UPSC Syllabus for Compulsory Language Paper

Paper B of the UPSC Mains exam is an English language paper. The aim of this paper is to test the candidate’s proficiency in English and their ability to communicate effectively. It is important for candidates to have a good understanding of the UPSC Syllabus of the English language, including grammar rules, vocabulary, and usage. Candidates should also practice writing skills and develop the ability to write clearly and effectively. Check the UPSC Syllabus for Paper B of the Mains exam below:

  • Comprehension of given passages
  • Precis writing
  • Usage and vocabulary
  • Short essay
  • Grammar and basic language rules
  • Writing skills

UPSC Syllabus for Essay Paper

The UPSC syllabus for the Essay paper is not specifically stated. It is one of the nine papers in the mains exam and it is conducted for a total of 250 marks. The aim of the essay paper is to test the candidate’s ability to express their thoughts and ideas in a clear, concise, and coherent manner. Candidates can expect to write two essays, each of about 1000 to 1200 words. The essays should be written in a coherent and logical manner and should demonstrate the candidate’s ability to present arguments and counterarguments effectively.

UPSC GS Syllabus

UPSC Syllabus for General Studies is vast and requires a deep understanding of various fields. The aim of the General Studies papers is to test the candidate’s knowledge, analytical abilities, and understanding of current affairs and issues of national and international importance. The IAS Syllabus of Mains GS papers includes

  • GS Paper 1 Syllabus: Indian Heritage and Culture, History, and Geography of the World and Society
  • Syllabus of GS Paper 2: Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice, and International Relations
  • GS Paper 3 Syllabus: Technology, Economic Development, Biodiversity, Environment, Security, and Disaster Management
  • UPSC Syllabus of GS Paper 4: Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude

UPSC Syllabus GS Paper 1

The General Studies Paper 1 in the UPSC Mains exam is an important and challenging paper that assesses the candidate’s knowledge and understanding of various aspects of Indian and global history, culture, society, geography, polity, and governance. This paper carries a weightage of 250 marks out of the total 1750 marks in the Mains exam. Candidates can check the UPSC Syllabus of GS Paper 1 in detail below.

UPSC Syllabus of Mains GS Paper 1
Subjects Topics
Indian Arts and Culture Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature, and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
Important archaeological sites in India and their significance.
History of India Ancient, medieval, and modern history of India
Political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism, etc. – their forms and effect on society.
Significant events, personalities, and issues in Modern Indian history from the mid-18th century until the present.
The Freedom Struggle and the Indian National Movement, including different stages, important contributors, and their ideologies.
Industrial Revolution, world wars, redrawing of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization
Post-independence consolidation, and reorganization within the country
Geography of the World and India Physical, economic, and social geography of India and the world.
Important geographical features and their significance.
Distribution of important natural resources around the world, including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent.
Factors involved in the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary industries in different parts of the world including India.
Geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water bodies and ice-caps), flora and fauna, and the effects of such changes.
Major geophysical events such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic activity, and cyclones
Indian Society Diversity, and challenges such as poverty, inequality, and social empowerment.
Social and religious reform movements in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of society by the government.
The role of women and women’s organizations, population and related issues, poverty and development issues, urbanization, its problems, and solutions.
Social Empowerment, Communalism, Regionalism, and Secularism, Impact of Globalization on Indian Society

UPSC Syllabus GS Paper 2

The IAS syllabus of General Studies Paper 2 in the Mains exam does cover various aspects of governance, constitution, polity, and public policy. The weightage of the General Studies Paper 2 is 250 marks out of the total 1750 marks in the UPSC Syllabus of Mains exam.

Governance Syllabus for UPSC

  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and their issues
  • Development processes and the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency, and accountability, e-governance – applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential
  • Role of civil services in a Democracy
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes
  • Mechanisms, laws, institutions, and Bodies are constituted for protecting and improving these vulnerable sections
  • Citizens’ Charters, transparency & accountability, and institutional and other measures

UPSC Polity Syllabus:

  • Indian Constitution: Historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions, and basic structure
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States
  • Issues and challenges about the federal structure
  • Separation of powers between various organs disputes redressal mechanisms and institutions
  • Devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries
  • Parliament and State Legislatures: structure, functioning, the conduct of business, powers & privileges, and issues
  • Structure, organization, and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government
  • Pressure Groups and Formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity
  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions, and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies
  • Statutory, regulatory, and various quasi-judicial bodies

Social Justice Syllabus for UPSC CSE: Issues relating to the development and management of Social Sector/Services, Issues relating to poverty and hunger

International Relations Syllabus:

  • India’s Interests, Impact of Developed and Developing Country Policies on Indian Diaspora.
  • India and Surroundings – International Relations
  • Significant international bodies, institutions, structures, and mandates.
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.
  • Important International institutions, agencies, and fora, their structure, and mandate.

UPSC Syllabus for GS Paper 3

The UPSC Syllabus of General Studies Paper 3 is designed to test the candidates’ knowledge of various aspects of the Indian economy, technology, biodiversity, environment, security, and disaster management. This paper is known as the “Economic and Social Development” paper and is a critical component of the UPSC Syllabus. The weightage of General Studies Paper 3 is 250 marks, which is one-fourth of the total marks of the UPSC Mains exam. Therefore, it is essential for the candidates to have a strong understanding of the topics covered in this paper to secure a good rank in the exam.

Subject Topics
Economics International Organisations
Economic Development in India
Money Market, and Capital Market
Biodiversity Environmental Pollution, and Degradation
Types of Biodiversity
Environmental Impact Assessment
Science and Technology Recent Developments and Applications and Effects on Daily Life
Nuclear Energy, Space Technology with recent missions
Indian achievements in science and technology
Domestic production of technology and development of new technology
Defence Technology, Dark Matter, Higgs Boson, GM Crop
General awareness in the fields of IT, space, computers, robotics, nanotechnology, and biotechnology
Internal Security and Disaster Management Laws, Acts, etc.
Challenges to Internal Security
Linkages between the development and spread of Extremism
Basics of Cyber Security; Money-laundering and its prevention
Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with Terrorism
PM Cares Fund, and National Disaster Management Plan
Various Security forces and agencies and their mandates

IAS Syllabus for GS Paper 4

The UPSC Syllabus for General Studies Paper 4 is designed to test the candidates’ knowledge of various aspects of ethics, integrity, and aptitude. It aims to assess the candidates’ ability to think critically, make ethical and moral decisions, and demonstrate a high level of integrity in their personal and professional lives. This paper is a critical component of the UPSC Syllabus. General Studies Paper 4 carries a weighted average of 250 marks in the UPSC Mains Syllabus. As a result, in order to get an excellent score in the UPSC exam, candidates must possess a thorough comprehension of the subjects covered in this paper.

Subject Topics
Ethics Human Values: lessons from the Lives and Teachings of great leaders, reformers, and Administrators
Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, Determinants, and Consequences of Ethics in Human Actions
Role of Family Society and Educational Institutions in Inculcating Values.
Attitude: Content, Structure, Function; its Influence and Relation with Thought and Behaviour
Moral and Political Attitudes, Social Influence and Persuasion.
Human Values: Lessons from the Lives and Teachings of Great Leaders, Reformers, and Administrators
Integrity Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public Administration, Laws, rules, regulations, and conscience as sources of ethical guidance, Status, and problems
Ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions, Strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance
Accountability and ethical governance, Corporate governance, Ethical issues in international relations, and funding
Aptitude Aptitude and Foundational Values for Civil Service: Integrity, Empathy, Impartiality and Non-partisanship, Objectivity, Tolerance, Dedication to Public Service, and Compassion towards the weaker sections.
Emotional Intelligence
Contributions of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India and the World
Public/Civil Service Values and Ethics in Public Administration
Probity in Governance

UPSC Syllabus 2023 – Optional Subjects

The UPSC Exam provides candidates with the flexibility to choose an optional subject for the Mains examination. The optional subject paper consists of two papers of 250 marks each, making it a total of 500 marks. Choosing an optional subject requires careful consideration and analysis of the candidate’s strengths, interests, and academic background. The UPSC syllabus for the optional subjects covers a wide range of topics, and candidates must have a deep understanding of the subject to score well in the exam.

UPSC Mains Syllabus for Optional Papers

UPSC provides a wide range of optional subjects for candidates appearing for the UPSC CSE. The optional subjects syllabus is divided into two papers – Paper I and Paper II. Candidates can check the list of UPSC optional subjects in the table below.

IAS Syllabus for Optional Subjects
UPSC Syllabus – Agriculture UPSC Syllabus – History
UPSC Syllabus – Animal Husbandry UPSC Syllabus – Indian Society
UPSC Syllabus – Anthropology UPSC Syllabus – Law Optional
UPSC Syllabus – Botany UPSC Syllabus -Management
UPSC Syllabus – Chemistry UPSC Syllabus – Maths Optional
UPSC Syllabus – Civil Engineering UPSC Syllabus – Mechanical Engineering
UPSC Syllabus – Commerce and Accountancy UPSC Syllabus – Medical Science
UPSC Syllabus – Economics UPSC Syllabus – Philosophy
UPSC Syllabus – Geography UPSC Syllabus – Physics
UPSC Syllabus – PSIR UPSC Syllabus – Science and Technology
UPSC Syllabus – Psychology UPSC Syllabus – Sociology
UPSC Syllabus – Public Administration UPSC Syllabus – Statistics
UPSC Syllabus – Zoology UPSC Syllabus – Geology
UPSC Syllabus – Polity

UPSC Optional Literature Syllabus

The official syllabus also includes the UPSC optional syllabus for various literature subjects. Candidates who opt for one of the literature subjects as their optional must download the UPSC Syllabus PDF for literate subjects to get started.

UPSC Syllabus 2023 – Literature Optional
IAS Syllabus – English Literature IAS Syllabus – Malayalam Literature
IAS Syllabus – Hindi Literature IAS Syllabus – Nepali Literature
IAS Syllabus – Assamese Literature IAS Syllabus – Marathi Literature
IAS Syllabus – Bengali Literature IAS Syllabus – Dogri Literature
IAS Syllabus – Gujarati Literature IAS Syllabus – Konkani Literature
IAS Syllabus – Manipuri Literature IAS Syllabus – Urdu Literature
IAS Syllabus – Odia Literature IAS Syllabus – Santhali Literature
IAS Syllabus – Sanskrit Literature IAS Syllabus – Bodo Literature
IAS Syllabus – Telugu Literature IAS Syllabus – Maithili Syllabus
IAS Syllabus – Kannada Literature IAS Syllabus – Sindhi Syllabus
IAS Syllabus – Tamil Literature

UPSC Syllabus for IAS Interview

There is no fixed UPSC Syllabus for the IAS Interview. It aims to assess the candidate’s overall personality, leadership qualities, communication skills, and ability to think critically. The interview is conducted by a panel of experts to assess the suitability of the candidates for a career in civil services. Candidates can check the information about UPSC Syllabus for IAS Interview below.

  • Candidates who clear the UPSC Mains Exam will appear for the Interview.
  • The interview is conducted by a Board appointed by the Union Public Service Commission.
  • The goal of the interview is to determine if the applicant is personally qualified for a position in the civil service.
  • The candidate’s career, professional, and personal data that they provided on the DAF will be evaluated.
  • The interview is a focused interaction designed for gathering information about the candidate’s mental capacities and analytical skills.
  • The interview carries a weightage of 275 marks, and the written examination carries 1750 marks.
  • The total marks for selection are 2025, based on which the final merit list will be prepared.

Significance of UPSC Syllabus

The UPSC Syllabus is of great significance as it outlines the topics that aspirants need to study to crack the exam. Here are some of the key reasons why the UPSC Syllabus is important:

  • Helps aspirants focus on relevant topics: The vast UPSC Syllabus can be overwhelming, and aspirants can get lost in the sea of information. The syllabus helps aspirants focus on the relevant topics and eliminate unnecessary information.
  • Provides a roadmap for preparation: It acts as a roadmap for aspirants, guiding them on what to study and how to structure their preparation.
  • Aids in the selection of study material: With numerous books and study materials available in the market, selecting the right study material can be a challenge. It also helps aspirants identify the essential study material required for the exam.
  • Helps aspirants plan their time: It lists the topics and subtopics that aspirants need to cover, making it easier for them to allocate their time to each subject and prioritize their studies accordingly.
  • Facilitates focused revision: The UPSC Syllabus helps aspirants revise the relevant topics systematically and effectively, leading to better retention and recall during the exam.

UPSC Syllabus – Important Topics

The UPSC Syllabus is vast, covering multiple subjects and topics. However, some topics are more important than others and require extra attention during preparation. Aspirants must have a clear understanding of these essential topics to score well in the UPSC exam. Candidates can check some of the important topics of the UPSC Syllabus below.

  • History: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern Indian History, World History, Freedom Struggle.
  • Geography: Physical Geography, Economic Geography, Environmental Geography, Human Geography, Indian and World Geography.
  • Polity: Constitution of India, Preamble, Fundamental Rights and Duties, Union and State Executive, Judiciary, Election System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Governance, and International Relations.
  • Economy: Basic concepts and principles, Money and Banking, Public Finance, International Trade, Economic Survey, Union Budget, Inflation, Poverty, and Unemployment.
  • Science and Technology: Basics of Science and Technology, Developments in Science and Technology, Biotechnology, Space Technology, ICT, Defense Technology, and Health-related developments.
  • Environment and Ecology: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Conservation and Environmental Pollution, Sustainable Development, and Environmental Impact Assessment.
  • Ethics and Integrity: Ethics, Integrity, Aptitude, Emotional Intelligence, Attitude, and Honesty.
  • Current Affairs: National and International Current Affairs, Government Schemes, Policies and Programs, Social and Economic Issues, and International Events.

Tips to Prepare UPSC Syllabus

The UPSC exam is one of the toughest competitive exams in India, and it requires a comprehensive understanding of various subjects. To crack the exam, candidates need to have a well-structured preparation strategy and follow it consistently. Candidates can check some tips that can help aspirants prepare for the UPSC Syllabus effectively.

  • Understand the exam pattern and syllabus thoroughly: Before starting your preparation, it is essential to understand the UPSC exam pattern and syllabus in detail. It will help you plan your study strategy and allocate time to different topics.
  • Prepare a comprehensive study plan: A well-structured study plan can help you cover the entire syllabus systematically. Create a realistic timeline, allocate time for each topic, and include regular revisions and mock tests in your study plan.
  • Read newspapers and current affairs regularly: Stay updated with the latest happenings in the country and around the world by reading newspapers and current affairs magazines. It will help you in the prelims as well as the mains exam.
  • Focus on NCERT textbooks: NCERT textbooks provide a strong foundation for UPSC preparation. Start with basic NCERT books and gradually move to advanced study material.
  • Practice mock tests: Practice as many mock tests as possible to get familiar with the exam pattern and improve your time management skills. Analyze the results of each mock test and identify the areas that need improvement.
  • Revise regularly: Revision is crucial for preparation. Revise regularly and ensure that you have a thorough understanding of the topics. Make concise notes and revise them frequently.
  • Join a coaching institute or online course: Joining a coaching institute or online course can provide you with guidance and structured preparation. However, self-study and self-discipline are equally important for preparation.
  • Stay motivated and focused: UPSC preparation is a long and challenging process. Stay motivated and focused on your goal, and do not get discouraged by failures. Celebrate small achievements and keep moving forward.

Changes in UPSC 2023 Syllabus

Over the years, the UPSC has made significant changes to its syllabus for the UPSC CSE. Aspirants are advised to stay abreast of any modifications to the syllabus and adapt their preparation strategies accordingly. Below is a brief overview of some of the notable changes that have been made to the UPSC syllabus in the past.

  • Introduction of CSAT Paper: In 2011, the UPSC introduced a new paper called the CSAT to replace the optional subject in the prelims with GS Paper 2. The CSAT paper tests a candidate’s aptitude and reasoning abilities, and it has a weightage of 200 marks.
  • Changes in Prelims Exam Pattern: In 2012, the UPSC made changes to the exam pattern for the prelims examination. The marks of the GS Paper and the CSAT paper were added to make the prelims merit list for qualifying candidates. Additionally, the syllabus for the UPSC mains was made more generic. The exam pattern for the mains examination incorporated two papers on general studies and one essay.
  • Introduction of Ethics Paper: In 2013, the UPSC introduced a new paper on Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude for General Studies Paper IV. The paper has a weightage of 250 marks and is designed to test a candidate’s ethical and moral principles.
  • Removal of Optional English Paper: In 2015, the UPSC removed the compulsory English paper from the CSE Mains. Candidates are now required to qualify in two language papers instead of one language and one English paper.
  • Addition of an Essay Paper: In 2015, the UPSC added a separate paper on Essays to the Mains. The paper has a weightage of 250 marks, and it is designed to test a candidate’s ability to express themselves clearly and coherently.
  • Change in the syllabus of the Optional Papers: In 2021, the UPSC announced a change in the syllabus for the optional papers. The new syllabus is more focused on contemporary topics and issues, and it aims to make the optional papers more relevant to the current times.
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