Aristotle introduced the concept of 'Syllogism'. It denotes 'inference' or 'deduction'. Syllogisms are an important part of almost every competitive exam and are included in the Reasoning section. Over the years, syllogisms have become mysterious and thus tricky to solve.
It is an important section of logical reasoning and hence, working knowledge of its rules is a must to solve the problems. Syllogisms questions are frequently asked in exams like SSC and Railway exams such as SSC CGL, CHSL, CPO, RRB NTPC, ALP exams etc.
Importance of Syllogism in Reasoning Section
In these types of Syllogism questions for SSC exams, there are two or more given statements which are followed by two or more statements. To solve a question, one needs to find out which of the conclusions follows logically. There are many ways to solve syllogisms. One of the most effective and efficient methods is using a Venn diagram.
Types of statements include the following:
- All B are C
In this case, the first element given falls under the subset of the second one. It can be represented using a Venn diagram where B lies inside the circle C.
- No B are C
In this case, the first element is not associated with the second one. It can be represented by the pattern which consists of two circles which are not intersecting each other.
- Some B are C
In this case, the first element is having a part which is common with the second element. It can be represented with a diagram where the two circles are overlapping each other.
- Some B are not C
In this type of question, the first element has some part which is uncommon with the second element. It can be represented using a diagram where the pattern consists of a circle which represents some part which is not overlapping the other circle.
- Only a few B are C
This case is a combination of some and some not cases. In this case, some part of the two circles overlaps and some part of the first element does not interact with the second element.
Other standard rules include:
- All combined with All equals All
- All combined with No equals No
- All combined with Some equals No conclusion
- Some combined with All equals Some
- Some combined with No equals Some Not
- Some combined with Some equals No conclusion
There can also be cases of possibilities which include:
- In the case of All B are C, then Some B are not C is a possibility
- In case Some B are not A, then All B are not A is a possibility
- If Some B are A, then All B are A is a possibility and All B are A is a possibility
Tips to Prepare Syllogisms
Following are some of the handy tips you can use to solve Syllogism questions for SSC exams.
- Read all the statements in order.
- Understand how you can draw Venn diagrams for each of the given statements.
- Try and form a pattern of every statement.
- Understand how to analyse the conclusion for each of the given statements.
- The key point is to remember that you need to attempt a question in a sequence.
Most Recommended Books for Syllogism
Here’s the list of books you can use to prepare Syllogism and improve your score.
Verbal & Non-verbal reasoning
A new approach to reasoning
B.S. Sijwali & S. Sijwali Arihant
Mishra & Lal
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Syllogism, which comes under the reasoning section of SSC exam, is an important topic and is asked frequently. It contains two or more statements which are followed by a number of conclusions. To ace these types of questions, you need to practice consistently and have a grasp over the latest pattern questions.
Frequently Asked Questions
- How to solve syllogisms quickly?
- Read through all the statements.
- Understand how you need to draw Venn Diagrams for every statement.
- Try to find out the linkage between two variables as per every statement.
- Try to find the conclusion as per the Venn Diagram.
- What is the best method to solve syllogisms?
The Venn diagram method is an effective and easy method to solve such questions.
- To solve first draw a minimum overlapping diagram based on the given statements.
- Then try and check the relationship between variables in every possible case.
- How to solve a statement using the Venn Diagram approach?
- Draw a minimum overlapping diagram as per statements given.
- If a conclusion doesn't satisfy the basic diagram, then check for a possibility if it is asked for in the given solution.
- If a definite conclusion satisfies a diagram, then it will also satisfy the possible case.
- How to solve a 3 statement syllogism?
In case of a three statement syllogism, look at the conclusion statement as valid and try to find out which two statements make it possible. Then try to get a valid conclusion out of the two questions statement and match with the conclusion given.
- Can an argument have three premises?
Three premise arguments denote that there are three statements and have one or more conclusions. It is the same as two premise arguments.