Various Diseases and Associated Part of Human Body Study Notes

By Ashwini Shivhare|Updated : February 22nd, 2022

Diseases and Associated Part of Human Body: General Science is an integral part of the General Awareness syllabus of SSC Exams. Today from the Biology section, we would be sharing study notes on "Diseases and Associated Part of Human Body" It is a very important topic for any competitive exam. Around 2 questions are asked about this topic in SSC and Railway Exams. Make sure you go through these notes and learn them by heart. Students, this topic would be very crucial from the exam point of view for all the upcoming  SSC CGL 2022SSC CHSL 2022, RRB NTPC 2022, RRB Group D 2022 etc. You can also download these study notes in PDF form from the link given at the bottom of this article. 

What is a "Disease"?

A disease is defined as any dysfunctional process that interferes with the body's natural functioning. In other terms, sickness is a dysfunction in a person's physical, physiological, psychological, or social state caused by a lack of nutrition, a deficiency, a physiological problem, a genetic problem, a pathogen, or any other reason.

Types of Diseases

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Parts of the Body Affected by Diseases

Disease

Affected Body Part

Arthritis 

Joints

Asthma 

Bronchial Muscles

Cataract 

Eyes

Diabetes 

Pancreas

Diphtheria 

Throat

Eczema 

Skin

Glaucoma 

Eyes

Goitre 

Thyroid Gland

Jaundice 

Liver

Leukemia 

Blood

Malaria 

Spleen

Meningitis 

Brain and Spinal Cord

Otitis 

Ears

Paralysis 

Nerves

Pneumonia 

  Lungs

Polio 

 Legs

Pyorrhoea 

Teeth and Gums

Rheumatism 

Joints

Sinusitis 

Inflammation of sinus linings

Tonsillitis 

Tonsils

Trachoma 

Eyes

Tuberculosis 

Lungs

Typhoid 

Intestines

Diseases and Causative Agents

Causative AgentDisease
BacteriaDiphtheria, Gonorrhoea, Meningitis, Cholera, Leprosy, Typhoid, Tetanus, Tuberculosis, Plague, Whooping Cough, Pneumonia
VirusChicken Pox, Small Pox, Measle, Mumps, AIDS, Yellow fever, Influenza, Dengue fever, Rabies, Polio-meritis phelebotomus
ProtozoansMalaria, Sleeping sickness, Kala-azar, Leishmaniasis, Amoebic dysentery
FungusAthlete's foot, Ringworms, Madura foot, Dhobi's itch
HelminthsFilaria, Tapeworm and Hookworm transmission

List of Diseases Spread through Viruses

Name of disease

Description

Common cold

  • Caused by: Large variety of viruses, commonly rhino-virus (RNA Virus)
  • Parts of body affected: Respiratory passages

Smallpox

  • Caused by: Variola virus (DNA virus)
  • Parts of body affected: Respiratory passages, then skin

Influenza

  • Caused by: A myxovirus (RNA virus)
  • Parts of body affected: Respiratory passages: epithelial lining of trachea and bronchi.

Measles

  • Caused by: A paramyxovirus (RNA virus)
  • Parts of body affected: Respiratory passages, spreading to skin and intestines.

Chickenpox

 
  • Caused by: Varicella- zoster
  • Parts of body affected: Blistering Skin rash

Mumps

  • Caused by: A paramyxovirus (RNA virus)
  • Parts of body affected: Respiratory passages, infection via blood, salivary glands, testes in adult males

German measles (Rubella)

  • Caused by: Rubella virus
  • Parts of body affected: Respiratory passages, lymph nodes in neck, eyes and skin.

Poliomyelitis (polio)

  • Caused by: Poliovirus (RNA Virus)
  • Parts of body affected: Pharynx and intestines, then blood; occasionally motor neurons in spinal cord, paralysis may occur.

Yellow fever

  • Caused by: An arbovirus i.e arthropod-borne virus (RNA Virus)
  • Parts of body affected: Lining of blood vessels and liver

Zika disease

  • Caused by: Zika Virus (mosquito borne disease)
  • Parts of body affected: Causes mild illness in the people like dengue, yellow fever

AIDS

  • Caused by: Retrovirus (RNA virus)
  • Parts of body affected: Skin Cancer

Ebola haemorrhagic fever

  • Caused by: Ebola Virus disease (EVD)
  • Parts of body affected: Fatal Illness in Humans, Fever

List of Diseases Caused by Bacteria

Name of disease 

Description

Whooping cough (Pertussis)

  • Caused by: Bordetella pertussis
  • Parts of body affected: Upper respiratory tract, inducing violent coughing
  • Medium of spread: Droplet infection

Diphtheria

  • Caused by: Corynebacterium diphtheria
  • Parts of body affected: Upper respiratory tract, mainly throat also toxin affects heart.
  • Medium of spread: Droplet infection

Tuberculosis (TB)

  • Caused by: Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Parts of body affected: Mainly lungs
  • Medium of spread: Droplet infection, Drinking milk from infected cattle

Gonorrhoea

  • Caused by: Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • Parts of body affected: Reproductive organs
  • Medium of spread: Contagion by sexual contact

Tetanus

  • Caused by: Clostridium tetani
  • Parts of body affected: Blood
  • Medium of spread: Wound infection

Syphilis

  • Caused by: Treponema pallidum
  • Parts of body affected: Reproductive organs, then eyes, bones, joints, central nervous system, heart and skin.
  • Medium of spread: Contagion by sexual contact

Cholera

  • Caused by: Vibrio cholera
  • Parts of body affected: Alimentary canal: mainly small intestine
  • Medium of spread: Faecal contamination

Bacterial food poisoning (gastro enteritis or salmonellosis)

  • Caused by: Salmonella spp.
  • Parts of body affected: Alimentary canal
  • Medium of spread: Mainly foodborne meat from infected animals from poultry and pigs. Also via faecal contamination

Typhoid fever

  • Caused by: Salmonella typhi
  • Parts of body affected: Alimentary canal, then spreading to lymph and blood, lungs, bone marrow, spleen
  • Medium of spread: Faecal contamination

Bacterial dysentery

  • Caused by: Shigella dysenteriae
  • Parts of body affected: Alimentary canal, mainly ileum and colon
  • Medium of spread: Faecal contamination

Biology Notes 2022: Various Diseases and Associated Part of Human Body PDF⇓

Important Information about Human Body

  • Biggest Organ: Skin
  • Heart Beat: 72 times in a minute
  • Largest Gland: liver
  • Number of Bone: 206
  • Number of Muscles: 640
  • Number of chromosomes: 46 or 23 pairs
  • Normal Blood Pressure: 80 to 120
  • Teeth: 32
  • The volume of Blood: About 7 litres in the normal body or about 7% of the total body weight.
  • Largest; Part of human Brain: Cerebrum

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FAQs

  • Around 3 - 4 questions are asked from biology in SSC Exams.

  • important biology topics for SSC exams 2022 are Diseases and Associated Part of Human Body, Viruses and diseases, vitamins and proteins, Parts of plants etc.

  • Total 25 general awareness questions are asked in the SSC CGL exam.

  • Spleen gets affected by the Malaria disease

  • Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria.

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SSC & Railway

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tags :SSC & RailwayGeneral AwarenessSSC CGL OverviewSSC CGL Exam DatesSSC CGL SyllabusSSC CGL Exam AnalysisSSC CGL Question Papers

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