Know all about President Elections in India for SSC Exams

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 25th, 2023

Recently President election announced by Election commission which will be held on July 17, 2017. Two official candidates have been announced so far for fighting a president election. Those are- Former governor of Bihar Ram Nath Kovind and Former Lok sabha speaker Meira Kumar.

Union Executives-

  • Union Executive Consist of Political Executive and Permanent Executive.
  • Political Executive– These are elected by the people for a specific period. It includes President, Vice President, The prime Minister, Council of minister, and attorney general of India.
  • Permanent Executive– These are selected based on their capability and quality by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). It Includes Cabinet secretary, IAS officers etc.

Provision regarding President in constitution-

  • Article 52 of the constitution states that “There shall be a President of Union of India.
  • Article 53 states that The Executive powers of the union shall be vested in the President.

Election of President-

  • The President of India is elected by an electoral college consisting of:
    (i) Elected members of both house of parliament
    (ii) Elected members of the legislative assemblies of the state
    (iii) Elected members of the legislative assemblies of the Union territories of Delhi and Puducherry (Added in 70th amendment of Indian Constitution, 1992)
    (i) Nominated members of (Both house of parliament, State legislative assemblies of all states, legislative assemblies of Delhi and Puducherry) do not take part in President election.
    (ii) Members of state legislative councils (In case of the bicameral legislature) do not take part in election of President.
  • President of India is elected by proportional representation system by means of single transferable vote.
  • Voting in president election is done by secret ballot.
  • A candidate to be elected to the office of president, He/she must secure a fixed quota of Votes.
  • Each member of the electoral college is given one ballot paper and He/she is required to indicate his preference by marking against the names of candidates.
  • In first counting if candidate secures required quota, he is declared elected. Otherwise the transfer of votes in motion (In this Ballots of candidates who secures least number of votes are cancelled for next counting and his second preference votes transferred to the first preference votes of the other candidates.) and process continues till a candidate secures the required quota.
  • All disputes related to election of president are inquired into and decided by the supreme court whose decision is final.

Qualifications of Election as President-

A person should have following qualification for becoming a president of India-

  • A citizen of India.
  • Completed 35 years of age.
  • Qualified for election as member of Lok Sabha
  • Should not hold any office of profit under central government, state government etc.

Oath by the President-

The President shall take the oath of office in the Presence of CJI (Chief Justice of India) and in his absence senior most judge of the supreme court. In his oath president swears:

  • To preserve, protect and defend the constitution

Tenure of President’s office-

  • The President holds office for a term of 5 years.
  • In India President is also eligible for re-election to that office.
  • President can resign from his office before completion of his tenure by addressing resignation letter to the vice President.
  • President can also remove from his office by the process of impeachment for “Violation of the constitution”.

Impeachment of President-

  • The impeachment resolution against president can be initiated by either house of parliament with signed by at least one-fourth members of that house.
  • Impeachment resolution passed by two-thirds of the total membership of that house, sent to the other house.
  • If other house (after investigation) passed the Impeachment resolution by two-thirds of the total membership of that house, then president removed from his office.
    (i) Nominated members of either house of parliament (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha) participate in impeachment of the president.
    (ii) The members of state legislative assemblies (States and UT’s), state legislative councils of states do not take part in impeachment of the president.

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