List of Chemical Formula & Important Compounds

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 25th, 2023

Chemical Formulas: Chemistry is an integral part of the General Science section and nearly 4-5 questions are asked in the examination, now that because of the changed exam pattern General Awareness is also a part of the Tier 2 examination, therefore, there would be additional weightage of this section. 

In this article, we will share some essential chemical compounds that will be useful for the upcoming Railways & SSC Exams 2023 along with that we will share with you Common Chemical Formula List PDF. Candidates are advised to go through this article till the end to get complete information on common chemical names and their formulas.

Chemical Compound Formulas

You need to comprehend the names and formulas of the Common Chemical Compounds before moving on to what they actually are. Chemical formulas, on the other hand, contain a wealth of information about chemical substances, such as how many and what atoms they are made of, as well as the way the atoms are ordered, whereas a compound is a material made up of a specific proportion of two or more elements. You can count the atoms and elements in a compound by using its chemical formula.

Knowing the names and formulas of the chemical substances that make up our universe will help you do well on the General Science section of the exam. There are many chemical substances in our environment that are crucial to us and our daily life.

A list of important compounds and their uses are provided in the article. Check out the article for complete information.

Compounds and Their Uses

As per SSC syllabus, general science holds a significant weightage in all the exams. Through this, the commission assesses the basic scientific knowledge and understanding of candidates. It covers fundamental concepts of physics, chemistry, biology, and other scientific disciplines, which are essential for candidates appearing for various government job exams. Of these, Chemistry is one of the most important subjects.

Having a good grasp of chemistry concepts is crucial for answering questions related to chemical compounds and their formulas. Listed below are some of the most common Chemical compound formulas that are asked in the exam. Moreover, these are the chemical names and formula of commonly used household substances that we all should know about.

1. Calcium Carbonate 

Formula: CaCO3

Uses: Non-prescription drug for relief from acid indigestion and heartburn. Also considered a calcium supplement.

2. Sodium Chloride

Formula: NaCl

Uses: Used to season food (during food preparation and at the table), also used in the past as a method of food preservation.

3. Methane

Formula: CH4

Uses: natural gas, fuel (also called Marsh Gas)

4. Aspirin

Formula: C9H8O4

Uses: Pain Reliever

5. Potassium Tartrate

Formula: K2C4H4O6

Uses: cream of tartar, cooking

6. Baking soda

Formula: NaHCO3

Uses: cooking

7. Acetaminophen

Formula: C8H9NO2

Uses: Pain Reliever

8. Acetic Acid

Formula: C2H4O2

Uses: Active ingredient in vinegar

9. Caffeine

Formula: C8H10N4O2

Uses: stimulant in coffee, tea, some soda

10. Propane

Formula: C3H8

Uses: fuel for cooking

11. Sodium Carbonate

Formula: Na2CO3

Uses: washing soda

12. Phosphoric Acid

Formula: H3PO4

Uses: flavouring in soda

13. Ascorbic acid

Formula: C6H8O6

Uses: Essential vitamin (vitamin C)

14. Ammonia

Formula: NH3

Uses: fertilizer, household cleaner when dissolved in water

15. Ethylene Glycol

Formula: C2H6O2

Uses: antifreeze

16. Calcium Carbonate

Formula: CaCO3

Uses: antacid

17. Ethanol

Formula: C2H5OH

Uses: disinfectant, alcoholic beverages

18. Carbon dioxide

Formula: CO2

Uses: carbonating agent in soda

19. Hydrochloric Acid

Formula: HCl

Uses: production of batteries, photoflash bulbs and fireworks. It’s even used to process sugar and make gelatin.

20. Calcium Oxide

Formula: CaO

Uses: Less common in modern homes than in the past. Glows when heated, was used in theatres before the invention of electric lighting. Health risks on skin contact or inhalation.

21. Sucrose

Formula: C12H22O11

Uses: Used in cooking. Use as a sweetener.

22. Potassium Carbonate

Formula: K2CO3

Uses: Potash is the common name for various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form.

23. Plaster of Paris

Formula: CaSO4·1⁄2H2O

Uses: used for casts to hold broken limbs in place, modelling casts, sculptures and in plasterboard walls and ceilings

24. Gypsum

Formula: CaSO4.2H2O

Uses: Use to manufacture dry wall, plaster, joint compound.

25. Sodium Bicarbonate

Formula: NaHCO3

Uses: Used in baking where it reacts with other ingredients, releasing carbon dioxide (CO2), helping dough rise.

26. Sulphuric Acid

Formula: H2SO4

Uses: Used in lead-acid batteries for cars and other vehicles. It is also known as Vitriol.

27. Hydrogen Peroxide

Formula: H2O2

Uses: Used as a mouthwash (Personal Hygiene)

Chemical formula of Psuedo Alum – K2SO4.Al2(SO4)3.24H2O
Aqua Regia
is a mixture of – HCl and HNO3. In aqua-regia,3 parts of HCl and 1 part of HNO3 are mixed.

Common Chemical Formula List PDF

Aspirants must download the Common Chemical Compound Name and Formula PDF while covering the chemistry syllabus. This PDF includes the name of all the important chemical formulas and compound names that the officials asked for over the years.

Common Chemical Names and Formulas PDF

Important Chemical Compounds & Their Formula

Chemical formulas provide a lot of information about chemical substances, such as how many and what atoms they are made of, as well as the way the atoms are arranged.

compound is a substance composed of a definite proportion of two or more elements. A chemical formula tells us the number of atoms of each element in a compound. It contains the symbols of the atoms of the elements present in the compound as well as how many there are for each element in the form of subscripts. Below are a few examples of compounds and their chemical formulas are provided below.

Chemical Formula List

All chemical formula list is provided below, where candidates can check important chemical formulas for important chemical compounds along with common names and uses of those compounds.

Common Names of Chemical Compounds

Chemical Name of Compound

Common Chemical Compounds Formula

Uses of Compound

Aqua Fortis/ Spirit of Niter

Nitric Acid


Aqua fortis is used in the production of explosives and fertilizers.

Baking Soda

Sodium Bicarbonate or Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate


Baking soda is the main ingredient which is used in baking.

Blue Vitriol

Copper Sulphate


Blue Vitriol is used in insecticides and germicides and also as electrolytes for batteries.

Bleaching Powder

Calcium Oxychloride


Bleaching powder is mainly used in the textile industry for bleaching cotton and linen.

Bleach/ Antiformin/ Chloride of Soda

Sodium Hypochlorite


Sodium Hypochlorite is used on a large scale for bleaching, surface purification, water disinfection and odour removal.


Sodium Tetraborate Decahydrate/ Sodium Borate


Borax is used as a cleaner, and it is also used as an ingredient in paint, herbicides, toothpaste, skin creams, moisturizers, etc.


Mercurous Chloride


Calomel has been used as a fungicide, it was previously used to treat malaria and yellow fever.


Silicon Carbide


Carborundum is mainly used as an abrasive for cutting, polishing, grinding, and as an antislip additive.

Carbolic Acid/ Phenol / Hydroxybenzene Phenic Acid



Carbolic acid is one of the oldest antiseptic agents which is used as a disinfectant in household cleaners.

Caustic Potash

Potassium Hydroxide


Caustic potash is used in potassium soaps and detergents and in liquid fertilizers.

Chile Saltpetre

Sodium Nitrate


Chile Saltpetre is an agricultural source of nitrogen is used for making fertilizers, high-strength glasses and explosives.

Caustic Soda

Sodium Hydroxide


Caustic soda is used to manufacture paper and pulp, alumina, soap, detergents and petroleum products. It is also used for water treatment, metal processing, mining, etc.

Cream of Tartar

Potassium Hydrogen Tartrate/ Potassium Bitartrate


Cream of tartar is used in the bakery for stabilizing egg whites




Chloroform is used a solvent for floor polishes and lacquer. It is also used in paper, board and pesticide industries.

CFC-12/ Freon-12



CFC-12 is used as a refrigerant in air conditioners and refrigerators.


Calcium Magnesium Carbonate


Dolomite is used as an element for the production of glass, ceramics and bricks.

Dry Ice

Solid Carbon Dioxide


Dry Ice is actually a solid form of CO2. It is mainly used as a cooling agent and in theatres for dramatic effects.

Epsom Salt

Magnesium Sulphate Heptahydrate


Epsom salt is used to treat body aches, pain and inflammation


Lead (II) Sulphide


Galena is mined for its silver content and it is a primary ore of lead.

Glauber’s Salt

Sodium Sulphate Decahydrate


It is used for medicinal purposes for the removal of certain drugs overdose such as paracetamol.




Glycerol is used in food and beverages industry, it serves as a solvent, humectant and also helps in food preservation

Green Vitriol

Ferrous Sulphate Heptahydrate


Green vitriol is used for treatment against moss on the lawn and to treat iron clorosis of vine, berries and fruit trees.


Calcium Sulphate Dihydrate


Gypsum is used a retarder in Portland cement, and filler in paper and textiles.

Heavy Water

Deuterium Oxide


D2O is used as a neutron moderator in nuclear reactors


Iron (III) Oxide/ Ferric Oxide


Hematite is used to preparation of heavy metal separation, radiation shielding and to produce pigments.

Hypo Solution

Sodium Thiosulphate Pentahydrate


Hypo solution is mainly used for photographic paper processing

Laughing Gas

Dinitrogen Monoxide/ Nitrous Oxide


Nitrous Oxide is used by dentists to make the patients comfortable during certain procedures

Quick Lime/ Burnt Lime

Calcium Oxide


Quick Lime is mainly used in the production of steel, paper and pulp production, treatment of water.

Slaked Lime

Calcium Hydroxide


Slaked Lime is used in plasters, cements, and mortars


Calcium Carbonate


Limestone is used in building material, it is also one of the main ingredient in toothpaste.

Litharge (Red) and Massicot (Yellow)

Lead (II) Oxide/ Lead Monoxide


Massicot and Litharge are used in the production of lead stabilizers, lead glass, enamels, and pottery.

Methyl Ethyl Ketone/ Butanone



Butanone is the is main ingredient in paint formation

Marsh Gas



Methane at high temperatures reacts with steam to form Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen. The product is used in the production of ammonia for fertilizers and explosives.

Milk of Magnesia

Magnesium Hydroxide


Milk of Magnesia acts as an antacid which helps at the time of indigestion, heartburn and sour stomach.

Mohr’s Salt

Ammonium Iron (II) Sulphate


Mohr’s Salt is used to enhance iron’s shelf life and lower oxidation levels.

Muriatic Acid

Hydrochloric Acid


Muriatic Acid is used in leather processing, food additive, and gelatin production.

Oil of Vitriol

Sulphuric Acid


Sulphuric Acid is used for making fertilizer


Carbonyl Dichloride


Phosgene is used for making pesticides and plastics

Plaster of Paris

Calcium Sulphate Hemihydrate


Plaster of Paris is mainly used as a protective coating on ceilings and walls. It is also used for making sculptures.

Potash Alum/ Potassium Alum

Potassium Aluminum Sulphate Dodecahydrate


Potash Alum is mainly used in the purification of water, dyeing, and leather tanning.


Isopropyl Alcohol


Isopropyl Alcohol is mainly used to treat tremors, hypertension, chest pain, heart rhythm disorder and other circulatory conditions.


Silicon Dioxide (Silica)


Quartz is used in making of glass, hydraulic fracturing proppant, foundry sand, and gemstones.




Mercury is mainly used in barometers, thermostats, and thermometers

Rochelle Salt

Potassium Sodium Tartrate


Rochelle salt is used in the production of gelatins and pectins

Sal Ammoniac

Ammonium Chloride


Ammonium Chloride is used in industries as a cleaning agent


Potassium Nitrate


Saltpetre is commonly used as a food preservative

Slaked Lime

Calcium Hydroxide


Slaked Lime is used to form mortars, cement and plasters

Table Salt/ Common Salt

Sodium Chloride


Common Salt enhances the flavour of food and also plays a key role in food preservation.




TNT is used in bombs, military shells and grenades

Vermillion/ Cinnabar

Mercuric Sulphide


It is used in colour paints and also as one of the red coloring agents used in tattoo dyes.

Washing Soda

Sodium Carbonate Decahydrate


Washing Soda is used to unclog drains and in commercial detergent, mixtures, to treat hard water.

Wintergreen Oil

Methyl Salicylate


Wintergreen oil is used in traditional medicine for bacterial infections.

White Vitriol

Zinc Sulphate


White Vitriol is used in the manufacture of rayon fabric. It is used in eye drops and also for preserving skins and wood.

Knowing these Common Names of Chemical Compounds along with their formulas will be enough for you to sail successfully through the competitive exams like SSC CGL, SSC CHSL, RRB NTPC, etc.



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