Importance of Knowing Constitutional Amendments for SSC Exams
Knowing the Constitutional Amendments for SSC Exams is important for the candidates as questions related to constitutional amendments and articles are repeatedly asked in Tier 1 of the SSC exams such as CGL, CHSL, CPO, MTS etc. In tier 1 of the SSC exams, usually, 1-2 questions are asked about this topic. With the introduction of the general awareness subject in the tier 2 CBT exam of CGL and CHSL exam, the significance of this topic increases altogether.
Significance of Constitutional Amendments
The Constitution of India was first enacted in 1950 and since then it has always been the backbone of the Indian Government System. Parliament can amend any part of the Indian Constitution by using article 368 and the significance of amending the Constitution is that with the changing time a static document can act as a hurdle in the path of progress of the nation and amending the constitution not only strengthen the existing norms of the constitution but also increases flexibility to accommodate new and important changes in the document related to national and international commitments.
Types of Constitutional Amendments
Based on the majority required to make amendments in the constitution, we can categorise the constitutional amendments into three types
- Constitutional amendments that require simple majority: Outside the scope of Article 368, a number of articles in the Constitution can be altered by a simple majority of the two houses of Parliament.
- Constitutional amendments that require special majority: A special majority of the Parliament is required to modify the majority of the articles in the Constitution, which is a majority (that is, more than 50%) of the total membership of each House and a majority of two-thirds of the members of each House present and voting.
A measure is considered to be carried if it is backed by a majority of two-thirds of the members present and voting, as well as by more than half of the overall strength of the House.
Special Parliamentary Majority and State Consent.
- Constitutional amendments that require special majority and consent of half of the states: The articles of the Constitution relating to the federal structure of the polity can be altered by a special majority of the Parliament, as well as by a simple majority of half of the state legislatures. This form of majority is necessary when amending federal structures. Aside from a special majority by both houses of parliament, a simple majority of half of the state legislature is required. There is no time restriction for states to provide their approval of the law.
Procedure of Making Amendments in the Indian Constitution
Parliament is empowered to amend the Indian Constitution under Article 368, subject to the ‘Basic structure of Constitution’. It is done in three ways:
1. By simple majority- Amendment is done by a simple majority in each house of Parliament of India.
2. By special majority- Amendment is done by a special majority in each house of Parliament of India.
3. By special majority with ratification by half of the States Legislatures along with a special majority in each house of the Parliament.
Total Amendments in Indian Constitution
There are 105 total amendments in the Indian constitution till date. The 105th Constitutional Amendment Act revised Article 342A to allow the President to identify socially and educationally backward classes on the Central List for Central Government purposes. In 1951, First Amendment in the Indian Constitution was made. It authorises the state to use affirmative action to progress any socially and economically backward sections or categories of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes by limiting the applicability of basic rights.
Important Amendments in the Indian Constitution
Check out the table given below to check all the important amendments in the Indian Constitution. This will help you revise the list of amendments in the Indian constitution in one go at the time of the exam.
|First Constitutional Amendment Act, 1951|
|Seventh Constitutional Amendment Act, 1956|
|Eighth Constitutional Amendment Act, 1960|
|Twenty-Fourth Constitutional Amendment Act, 1971|
|Twenty-Fifth Constitutional Amendment Act, 1971|
|Twenty-Sixth Constitutional Amendment Act, 1971|
|Forty-Second Constitutional Amendment Act, 1976|
|Forty-Fourth Constitutional Amendment Act, 1978|
|Sixty-First Constitutional Amendment Act, 1988|
|Sixty-Ninth Constitutional Amendment Act, 1991|
|Seventy-Third Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992|
|Seventy-Fourth Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992|
|Eighty-Fourth Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002|
|Eighty-sixth Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002|
|Eighty-Seventh Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003|
|Eighty-Ninth Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003|
|Ninety-First Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003|
|Ninety-Seventh Constitutional Amendment Act, 2011|
|Ninety-Ninth Constitutional Amendment Act, 2014|
|Hundredth Constitutional Amendment Act, 2015|
|Hundred and First Constitutional Amendment Act, 2016|
|Hundred and Second Constitutional Amendment Act, 2018|
|Hundred and Third Constitutional Amendment Act, 2019|
Latest Amendments in Indian Constitution
The latest amendment in Indian Constitution was 105th Amendment. the hundred and fifth (105th) Amendment Act of 2021 is the last and most recent amendment in the Constitution of India. The Constitution (One Hundred and Fifth Amendment) Act, 2021 is aimed to clarify that the states can keep the "state list" of OBCs.
List of Amendments in Indian Constitution PDF
The list of amendments in the Indian constitution is an important topic in the polity syllabus for the SSC and Railway exams. Candidates often get confused while recalling the number and context of amendments and make mistakes while attempting these questions. To help candidates revise all important amendments in the Indian constitution, we have provided you with the link to download the List of Amendments in the Indian Constitution PDF. Click on the link given below and download the pdf.
> List of Amendments in Indian constitution PDF
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