Biology Notes on Plants Morphology for SSC & Other Competitive Exam

By Ashwini Shivhare|Updated : October 10th, 2021

In this article we will discuss about the morphology of plants i.e. the structure and various parts of plants. This topic is important as per exam perspective.  Question from this topics are frequently asked in SSC CGL EXAM.

Morphology:

Morphology is the branch of biology of that deals with the study and forms of various parts of plants and their specific special features. It includes the external structure of plant such as stem, root, leaves, etc.

In this article we will discuss about the morphology of plants i.e. the structure and various parts of plants. This topic is important as per exam perspective.  Question from this topics are frequently asked in SSC CGL EXAM.

Morphology:

Morphology is the branch of biology of that deals with the study and forms of various parts of plants and their specific special features. It includes the external structure of plant such as stem, root, leaves, etc.

Root and its functions:

  • it always grown downward into the soil away from sunlight.
  • It is always non green.
  • It never bears leaves, flowers, fruits, etc.
  • Its tips are protected by root caps.

 Kinds of Root

There are two general categories of roots

  1. True or tap root system
  2. Adventitious roots.

Modification of Tap roots:

Roots Modification

Description

Example

Arial Roots

Grow on bark of other plants,

Banyan and Peepal

Conical

Cone shaped

Carrot

Aquatic Roots

small and few in number and lacks root hairs

Aquatic plants

Napiform

Spherical

Turnip and beet root

Fusiform

Thick and Tapering

Radish

Pneumatophore

Upward movement for getting air for respiration

Rhizophopa

Modification of Adventitious Roots:

Different types of adventitious roots

discription

Fibrous Root

·     Have bushy appearance

·     Formed from base of stem

·     Found in grass, wheat, rice, maize etc.

Prop Root

·     Arise from nodes of arial stem

·     Found in maize, wheat, bamboo etc

Clasping Root

·     Develop from any part of a weak steam

·     Provide grip

Parasitic Root

There are special roots which a parasitic plant, such as , Dodder, produces on host. These roots absorb food from these plants.

Stem:

  • Stem is that portion of plant which grows upwards. It may be herbaceous or woody.
  • A herbaceous stem is soft, green and crops have herbaceous stems.
  • It is develop from plumule

Different Forms of Stems

The stem is modified into the following different forms:

  1. Suckers.
  2. Runners.
  3. Climbers.
  4. Tubers.
  5. Rhizome.
  6. Tendrils.
  7. Thorns.
  8. Cladode.

Modification of Stem:

Stem

Type

Example

Rhizome

undergroung

Ginger, turmeric

Tuber

Undergroung

potato

Bulb

Undergroung

Onion, garlic

Corm

undergroung

Saffron, Gladiolus

Morphology of Leaves:

Major function of leaves is to process photosynthesis. Leaf are made up of leaf base, petiole and lamina.

At the base of leaf small leaf like structure called stipules are present.

Modifications of Leaves

Leaves are modified according to the functions they perform. The different structural forms of leaves include:

  • Leaf Tendrils.
  • Spines.
  • Storage Leaves.
  • Insect-catching leaves.

Functions of Leaves

Some of the important functions performed by leaves are:

  1. Photosynthesis.
  2. Transpiration.
  3. Storage.
  4. Guttation.
  5. Defence.

Morphology of Flower:

  1. Flower is the reproductive part of the plant.
  2. Flower are generally modified shoot.

Various parts of flower are as follows

Types of flower

characteristic

Androecium

·     It is the male sex organ develops pollen grain.

·     Its unit is stamen.

·     Anther and filament are part of stamen.

Gynoecium

·     It is the female reproductive organ.

·     Its unit is carpel.

·     Ovary, Style and Stigma are three different part  of Carpel.

Pollination

·     The process of reaching of pollen grains to stigma is called pollination.

·     There are two type of pollination i.e. Self- pollination and Cross-pollination.

Fertilization

·     The process of fusion of male nucleus with egg cell is called fertilization.

·     Fertilized egg is called zygote.

·     In angiosperms the fertilization is triple fusion whereas in other category of plants it is double fusion.

Parthenocarpy

·     When fruit are developed without fertilization i.e. in ovary this is called parthenocarpy.

·     These types of fruits are seedless, example- Banana, Papaya, Orange, Grapes, Pine-apple etc.

Fruits and seeds

·     Fruit is the ripened ovary developed after fertilisation.

·     Seeds are mature ovule developed after fertilisation.

Fruit and seeds:

Fruits are divided into three parts:

  • Simple fruits like Banana, Guava etc.
  • Aggregate fruits like strawberry, custard apple etc.
  • Composite fruits like jackfruit and mulberry

Some fruit and their edible parts:

Fruits

Edible parts

Fruits

Edible parts

Apple

Fleshy Thalamus

Papaya

Mesocarp

Wheat

Starchy endosperm

Tomato

Pericarp and Placenta

Pear

Flashy Thalamus

Coconut

Endosperm

Lichi

Aril

Guava

Entire Fruit

Mango

Mesocarp

Groundnut

Cotlyledons

Orange

Juicy hair

Pineapple

Bract and perianth

Grapes

Pericarp and Placenta

Banana

Mesocarp and Endocarp

 

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Posted by:

Ashwini ShivhareAshwini ShivhareMember since Jan 2021
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Aditya jain
Fleshy leaves is edible part
Puneet Rai

Puneet RaiDec 26, 2017

Lucent ka type kiya hai
Bhawna Ghuse
Thank u sir
Kusum Das

Kusum DasApr 5, 2018

Thank u sir
Tarun Raghuwanshi
Bhai esme se railway Mai question aate h kya
sunny kumar
Very helpful
Sonu Rajak

Sonu RajakOct 10, 2021

provide current affairs topic wise contents  for last two months for ntpc tier 2 exams.
Abhishek Ray

Abhishek RayOct 10, 2021

Mam, please provide us a notes on CHARTER ACT 1813, 1833 and 1853... Because I have seen many questions on this particular portion!🙏🏼
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