In this article we will discuss about the morphology of plants i.e. the structure and various parts of plants. This topic is important as per exam perspective. Question from this topics are frequently asked in SSC CGL EXAM.
Morphology is the branch of biology of that deals with the study and forms of various parts of plants and their specific special features. It includes the external structure of plant such as stem, root, leaves, etc.
Root and its functions:
- it always grown downward into the soil away from sunlight.
- It is always non green.
- It never bears leaves, flowers, fruits, etc.
- Its tips are protected by root caps.
Kinds of Root
There are two general categories of roots
- True or tap root system
- Adventitious roots.
Modification of Tap roots:
Grow on bark of other plants,
Banyan and Peepal
small and few in number and lacks root hairs
Turnip and beet root
Thick and Tapering
Upward movement for getting air for respiration
Modification of Adventitious Roots:
Different types of adventitious roots
· Have bushy appearance
· Formed from base of stem
· Found in grass, wheat, rice, maize etc.
· Arise from nodes of arial stem
· Found in maize, wheat, bamboo etc
· Develop from any part of a weak steam
· Provide grip
There are special roots which a parasitic plant, such as , Dodder, produces on host. These roots absorb food from these plants.
- Stem is that portion of plant which grows upwards. It may be herbaceous or woody.
- A herbaceous stem is soft, green and crops have herbaceous stems.
- It is develop from plumule
Different Forms of Stems
The stem is modified into the following different forms:
Modification of Stem:
Morphology of Leaves:
Major function of leaves is to process photosynthesis. Leaf are made up of leaf base, petiole and lamina.
At the base of leaf small leaf like structure called stipules are present.
Modifications of Leaves
Leaves are modified according to the functions they perform. The different structural forms of leaves include:
- Leaf Tendrils.
- Storage Leaves.
- Insect-catching leaves.
Functions of Leaves
Some of the important functions performed by leaves are:
Morphology of Flower:
- Flower is the reproductive part of the plant.
- Flower are generally modified shoot.
Various parts of flower are as follows
Types of flower
· It is the male sex organ develops pollen grain.
· Its unit is stamen.
· Anther and filament are part of stamen.
· It is the female reproductive organ.
· Its unit is carpel.
· Ovary, Style and Stigma are three different part of Carpel.
· The process of reaching of pollen grains to stigma is called pollination.
· There are two type of pollination i.e. Self- pollination and Cross-pollination.
· The process of fusion of male nucleus with egg cell is called fertilization.
· Fertilized egg is called zygote.
· In angiosperms the fertilization is triple fusion whereas in other category of plants it is double fusion.
· When fruit are developed without fertilization i.e. in ovary this is called parthenocarpy.
· These types of fruits are seedless, example- Banana, Papaya, Orange, Grapes, Pine-apple etc.
Fruits and seeds
· Fruit is the ripened ovary developed after fertilisation.
· Seeds are mature ovule developed after fertilisation.
Fruit and seeds:
Fruits are divided into three parts:
- Simple fruits like Banana, Guava etc.
- Aggregate fruits like strawberry, custard apple etc.
- Composite fruits like jackfruit and mulberry
Some fruit and their edible parts:
Pericarp and Placenta
Bract and perianth
Pericarp and Placenta
Mesocarp and Endocarp
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