28 States of India and their Capitals, Languages & Formation Dates

By Ashwini Shivhare|Updated : November 17th, 2022

States and Capitals of India 2022 is one of the most important topics for SSC and Railway competitive exams. These exams comprise the General Knowledge section through which candidates’ knowledge of day-to-day activities or happenings around the world is tested. It is one of the most scoring subjects where candidates can attempt maximum questions in less time.

Every year, this section comprises questions on the States of India, including their capitals, languages, formation dates, population etc. Therefore, it is mandatory for the candidates to be aware of and also memorize the 28 states and capitals of India and their languages for your SSC Exam 2022 preparation.

Table of Content

Currently, India has 28 states and 8 Union territories. Earlier, there were 29 Indian states and 7 union territories but after the revocation of the special status of Jammu Kashmir, granted under Article 370, two new union territories of India were formed, which are Ladakh and Jammu & Kashmir. All the Indian states and union territories (UTs) are governed by the Central and State governments based on the federal structure. While the States and Capitals of India are governed by their elected government and Chief Minister as their elected head, Union Territories are administrated by the Central Government.

In this article, we have discussed about 28 states and capitals of India, their languages, and formation dates along with the map of India. This information will be very helpful for all SSC and Railways Exams 2022, especially the ones listed below:

States and Capitals of India

Most candidates are often confused about the states of India and their capitals. If you are also one of them, here we are to put a stop to all your confusion and queries. Earlier, there were 29 Indian states, however, after the revocation of the special status of Jammu & Kashmir, the state was converted into a Union Territory. After the revocation, J&K and Ladakh were converted into two Union Territories of India on October 31st, 2019. This resulted into 28 states and 8 union territories of India.

States and Capitals of India PDF

Even if you are not preparing for the SSC Exams you must know everything about the States of India as a responsible Indian citizen. Below, we have also provided a PDF on States and Capitals for those who are preparing for competitive exams. You can simply click on the link mentioned below to download the States of India and their capitals PDF.

States and Capitals of India: Classification

The States and Capitals of India are categorized into administrative, legislative, and judicial capitals. The administrative capital is where the executive resides and runs the government. The judicial capital is where the high court of the state is located and the legislative capital is where the state’s legislative assembly is situated. You must note here that we are referring to the administrative capital while discussing 28 states and capitals of India below.

Check: SSC CGL Syllabus and Exam Pattern 2021-22

States and Capitals of India List

With effect from January 26, 2020, India's total number of states is 28 and 8 union territories. Below, we have listed the names of all the India States and Capitals along with the population:

S.No

Name of Indian State

Capital of Indian State

Population (2021 Estimates)

1

Andhra Pradesh

Amaravati

5.27 Crores

2

Arunachal Pradesh

Itanagar

15.33 Lakhs

3

Assam

Dispur

3.50 Crores

4

Bihar

Patna

12.30 Crores

5

Chhattisgarh

Raipur

2.95 Crores

6

Goa

Panaji

16 Lakhs

7

Gujarat

Gandhinagar

7 Crores

8

Haryana

Chandigarh

2.95 Crores

9

Himachal Pradesh

Shimla

74 Lakhs

10

Jharkhand

Ranchi

3.85 Crores

11

Karnataka

Bengaluru

6.70 Crores

12

Kerala

Thiruvananthapuram

3.55 Crores

13

Madhya Pradesh

Bhopal

8.45 Crores

14

Maharashtra

Mumbai

12.44 Crores

15

Manipur

Imphal

31.65 Lakhs

16

Meghalaya

Shillong

33 Lakhs

17

Mizoram

Aizawl

12.16 Lakhs

18

Nagaland

Kohima

22 Lakhs

19

Odisha

Bhubaneswar

4.55 Crores

20

Punjab

Chandigarh

3 Crores

21

Rajasthan

Jaipur

7.92 Crores

22

Sikkim

Gangtok

6.77 Lakhs

23

Tamil Nadu

Chennai

7.65 Crores

24

Telangana

Hyderabad

3.80 Crores

25

Tripura

Agartala

41 Lakhs

26

Uttar Pradesh

Lucknow

23 Crores

27

Uttarakhand

Dehradun

1.14 Crores

28

West Bengal

Kolkata

9.8 Crores

Also Read: List of Important Government Schemes in India for SSC & Railways Exams 2022

28 States, Capitals and Languages of India

India is known for its diverse languages and we take pride in the fact that the language varies after a few km. Along with the 28 India States and their Capitals, you must learn the languages of India too. Indian Constitution recognizes 22 languages under the Eighth Schedule. We have divided the list into the official languages and languages spoken in every State of India.

The following is a list of states, capitals, and their languages:

States of India

Capitals of India

Official Languages of India

Regional Languages of India

Andhra Pradesh

Hyderabad (Proposed capital Amaravati)

Telugu

Telugu, Urdu, Hindi, Tamil and Marathi

Arunachal Pradesh

Itanagar

English

Nishi, Adi, Bengali, Nepali and Hindi

Assam

Dispur

Assamese

Assamese, Bengali, Hindi, Bodo, Nepali

Bihar

Patna

Hindi

Hindi (Bhojpuri and Magadhi dialects), Maithili, Urdu, Bengali and Santali

Chattisgarh

Raipur

Hindi

Hindi (Chhattisgarhi), Odia, Bengali, Telugu and Marathi

Goa

Panaji

Konkani

Konkani, Marathi, Hindi, Kannada and Urdu

Gujarat

Gandhinagar

Gujarati

Gujarati, Hindi, Sindhi, Marathi, and Urdu

Haryana

Chandigarh

Hindi

Hindi (Haryanvi and Mewati dialects), Punjabi, Urdu, Bengali, and Maithili

Himachal Pradesh

Shimla

Hindi

Hindi, Punjabi, Nepali, Kashmiri, and Dogri

Jharkhand

Ranchi

Hindi

Hindi (Bhojpuri, Magadhi, and Nagpuri dialects), Santhali, Bengali, Urdu, and Odia

Karnataka

Bengaluru (Formerly Bangalore)

Kannada

Kannada, Urdu, Telugu, Tamil, and Marathi

Kerala

Thiruvananthapuram

Malayalam

Malayalam, Tamil, Tulu, Kannada and Konkani

Madhya

Pradesh

Bhopal

Hindi

Hindi, Marathi, Urdu, Sindhi, and Gujarati

Maharashtra

Mumbai

Marathi

Marathi

Manipur

Imphal

Meitei (Manipuri)

Manipuri, Nepali, Hindi, and Bengali

Meghalaya

Shillong

English

Khasi, Garo, Bengali Nepali and Hindi

Mizoram

Aizawl

Mizo, English & Hindi

Mizo, English, Hindi, Manipuri, and Chakma

Nagaland

Kohima

English

Ao, Konyak, Angami,

Sema and Lotha

Odisha

Bhubaneswar

Odia

Odia, Bengali, Telugu Hindi and Santali

Punjab

Chandigarh

Punjabi

Punjabi and Hindi

Rajasthan

Jaipur

Hindi

Rajasthani and Hindi

Sikkim

Gangtok

English

Bhutia, Hindi, Nepali,

Lepcha, Limbu

Tamil Nadu

Chennai

Tamil

Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Urdu, and Malayalam

Telangana

Hyderabad

Telugu

Telugu, Urdu, Marathi Kannada and Hindi

Tripura

Agartala

Bengali, English & Kokborok

Bengali, Tripuri, Manipuri, Kakborak

Uttar Pradesh

Lucknow

Hindi

Hindi (including Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Braj Bhasha and Khari Boli dialects)

Uttarakhand

Dehradun (Winter)

Gairsain (Summer)

Hindi

Hindi (including the Garhwali, Kumaoni, and Jaunsari dialects)

West Bengal

Kolkata

Bengali

Bengali

Also Read:

Difference Between States and Union Territories Of India

If you are always in the dilemma of ‘what is the difference between States and Union Territories of India’, or ‘Why Union Territories are not States’, here’s an answer to all your questions. The table below highlights the difference between the Indian States and Union Territoritories:

Particulars

State

Union Territories

Administration & Definition

A State has its units for administration through its elected government

A State is run through either unicameral or bicameral legislature

Union Territory is administered and controlled by the Central Government through Lieutenant Governor (LG)

Delhi and Puducherry both are UTs which are governed by LG, Chief Minister, and Council of Ministers

Executive Head

Governor

Lieutenant Governor

Relationship with Centre

Federal in character

Unitary in character

Autonomy

Completely exist

Does not exist

Indian Union Territories and Capitals

Since January 26, 2020, the Union Territories Daman and Diu has been merged with Dadra and Nagar Haveli, making it one union territory of India, according to a bill enacted by Parliament during the winter session. The number of UTs has been reduced to eight following the merger of Daman & Diu with Dadra and Nagar Haveli.

The below table enlists the complete list of Indian Union Territories and their capitals along with population which is organized as per the established year:

Union territories of India

Union Territories and their Capitals

Population (2021 Estimates)

Delhi

New Delhi

3.5 crores

Puducherry

Pondicherry

15.71 Lakhs

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Port Blair

4 Lakhs

Lakshadweep

Kavaratti

68000

Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu

Daman

10.77 Lakhs

Chandigarh

Chandigarh

10,55,450

Ladakh

Leh

2.97 Lakhs

Jammu and Kashmir

Srinagar (Summer), Jammu (Winter)

1.34 Crores

SSC CGL Previous Years Question Papers in Hindi and English (Download PDF)

States and Capitals of India 2022: Formation Dates

The formation of a state/union territory is commemorated by the celebration of Foundation Days of Indian States. Some of the Indian States Formation Dates are being declared an official state holiday by these Indian states. Let us check the States of India formation dates given in the table below:

S.NO

States of India

Formation Dates

1

Andhra Pradesh

1st November 1956

2

Arunachal Pradesh

20 February 1987

3

Assam

26th January 1950

4

Bihar

26th January 1950

5

Chhattisgarh

1st November 2000

6

Goa

30th May 1987

7

Gujarat

1st May 1960

8

Haryana

1st November 1966

9

Himachal Pradesh

25th January 1971

10

Jharkhand

15th November 2000

11

Karnataka

1st November 1956

12

Kerala

1st November 1956

13

Madhya Pradesh

1st November 1956

14

Maharashtra

1st May 1960

15

Manipur

21st January 1972

16

Meghalaya

21st January 1972

17

Mizoram

20th February 1987

18

Nagaland

1st December 1963

19

Odisha

26th January 1950

20

Punjab

1st November 1956

21

Rajasthan

1st November 1956

22

Sikkim

16th May 1975

23

Tamil Nadu

26th January 1950

24

Telangana

2nd June 2014

25

Tripura

21st January 1972

26

Uttar Pradesh

26th January 1950

27

Uttarakhand

9th November 2000

28

West Bengal

1st November 1956

Indian Union Territories Formation Dates

The table given below enlists the formation dates of Union Territories of India. Ladakh and Jammu and Kashmir are two last formed union territories after the revocation of the special status of Jammu and Kashmir. Take a look at the Indian Union Territories formation dates below.

Union territories of India

Formation Date

Delhi

1st Nov 1956

Puducherry

1st Nov 1954

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

1st Nov 1956

Lakshadweep

1st Nov 1956

Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu

26 Jan 2020

Chandigarh

1st Nov 1966

Ladakh

31st Oct 2019

Jammu and Kashmir

31st Oct 2019

States and Capitals of India Map

The below map highlights the list of States and Union Territories formed in India along with their formation dates:

byjusexamprep

Image Credits: mapsofindia.com

Since you know everything about one of the most important topics of SSC General Awareness Syllabus i.e. States and Capitals of India, you must begin your preparation now!

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FAQs on States and Capitals of India

  • As of 2022, there are a total of 28 states and capitals with 8 Union Territories in India. Earlier, there were 29 states, but after the abolition of Article 370, the state of Jammu and Kashmir lost its status as a state in India. Since then, the former Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir has been divided into two different Union Territories.

  • India is a big country with a vast population. Hence, to administer and govern it properly, India was divided into states and capitals. As of now, there are 28 states and 8 union territories. We have provided a list of Indian states and their capitals in the article above.

  • On 26th January 2020, Daman and Diu merged with Dadra and Nagar Haveli to be called ‘Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu’. The plan to merge the two UTs was proposed in the year 2019, and the current capital is Daman. All four geographical entities were previously under the rule of Portuguese Goa.

  • Telangana is the last state to be created as per the formation dates of states in India, i.e. on 2nd June 2014. Before this, there were 28 states in India. Telangana was separated from Andhra Pradesh due to political and social tensions that led to the demand for a separate state.

  • The Indian Constitution recognizes 22 scheduled languages which are mentioned under the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution. Furthermore, the Eighth Schedule consists of 22 languages that enjoy the status of official languages of India. Languages play an important role in the identity of the Indian states.

  • Andhra Pradesh is the first Indian state to be formed on a linguistic basis out of the 28 states of India. The states and capitals are formed keeping various factors in mind by the Parliament. One of the vital factors is language, as linguistic barriers and identities can create tensions in communities.

  • When learning about the states and capitals of India, one must also learn the difference between a state and Union Territory. A state has autonomous administrative powers and is governed by the elected government. Whereas a union territory is governed by the Central Government through Lieutenant Governor.

  • English is the official language of Sikkim. Candidates must make an effort to learn about the official languages of India and how they can differ as per the state. As of 2022, there are 22 languages that have been given the status of the official language of India.

  • The states and capitals are mainly divided by the Parliament of India. It is a practice that is done to set boundaries and maintain jurisdiction in a particular area. The capital is decided on the basis of the law and constitution and the branch of government that governs that place.

  • The capital of India is New Delhi. New Delhi is considered a Union Territory and was inaugurated as the national capital of India during the British rule. Before that, Calcutta (present-day Kolkata) was the capital of India. You can learn more about states and capitals of India in the article.

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