Making of the Indian Constitution: Indian Polity Notes for SSC Exam

By Ashwini Shivhare|Updated : July 20th, 2021

Polity Study Notes for SSC Exams 2021: Polity has always been one of the important subjects under general awareness section. Every year 3 - 5 questions are asked from the polity. As two major SSC exams, ISSC CGL 2020-21 and SSC CHSL 2020-21 are approaching near, it would be apt to revise one important polity topic.

Today we will discuss the "Making of Indian Constitution" in this article. This notes would be useful for all upcoming SSC and Railway Exams 2021.

Polity Study Notes for SSC Exams 2021: Polity has always been one of the important subjects under general awareness section. Every year 3 - 5 questions are asked from the polity. As two major SSC exams, ISSC CGL 2020-21 and SSC CHSL 2020-21 are approaching near, it would be apt to revise one important polity topic.

Today we will discuss the "Making of Indian Constitution" in this article. This notes would be useful for all upcoming SSC and Railway Exams 2021. 

Making of the Indian Constitution

Key Timeline in the 1948 Constitutional Process

DateDescription
1946Britain decides on to grant independence to India and cabinet mission is dispatched to India to discuss modalities for transfer of power
Nov 1946Formation of Constituent Assembly
11 Dec 1946President of Constituent Assembly appointed
13 Dec 1946Objective Resolution by Nehru
22 January 1947Objective Resolution was adopted
14 August 1947Proposal for creation of committees is tabled
15 Aug 1947India Achieved Independence
29 August 1947Drafting committee is established
6 December 1947Constituent Assembly formally convenes for the first time, following elections, to start the process of writing a constitution.
4 November 1947Draft is finalized and submitted
1948 – 1949Constituent Assembly meets in sessions open to the public
26 November 1949Constituent Assembly adopts final draft making it official
26 January 1950Entry into force of the new constitution

Important Acts in the Making of Indian Constitution

The making of the Indian Constitution was not as easy as it sounds. It consisted of a number of acts put together, before and after the independence. And some of the key acts are -:

The Government of India Act, 1919

  • After this act, legislative councils were brought into existence in all the provinces of the Government. The British chose to adopt a bicameral structure of Government which had two separate governments, which is central and provincial.

The Government Act of 1935

  • The enforcement of this law is considered to be one of the most significant events in the history of the Constitution of India. This act worked towards providing divided powers of governance into a Federal list, a provincial list, and a concurrent list.
  • The act also granted more power and autonomy of self-governance to the provinces. This act also helped to set up the federal court, which is today known as the Supreme Court of India.
The Indian Independence Act of 1947
  • The departure of the British from India was marked by this act. After this act, India officially became an independent and sovereign state. This act laid down the Foundation of the Constituent Assembly which further worked on the drafting of the Constitution of India.

Formation of Constituent Assembly

  • It was M.N Roy who proposed the idea of an independent constituent assembly for India in 1934.
  • The constituent assembly was formed as per the guidelines suggested by the Cabinet Mission Plan, 1946.
    • The mission was headed by Pethick Lawrence and included two other members apart from him – Stafford Cripps and A.V Alexander.
  • The elections to form the assembly took place in July-August 1946 and the process was completed by November 1946.
  • The total strength of the assembly was 389. However, after partition only 299 remained. It was partly elected and partly nominated body.

First Meeting of the Constituent Assembly

  • The first meeting of the assembly took place on 9th December 1946 and was attended by 211 members.
  • Dr Sachhidanand Sinha became the temporary president of the assembly following the French practice.
  • On 11th December 1946, Dr. Rajendra Prasad and H.C Mukherji were elected as President and Vice-President respectively.
  • Sir B.N Rau was appointed as the constitutional advisor to the assembly.

Objective Resolution By Nehru

  • On 13th December 1946, Pt. Nehru moved the Objectives resolution which later went on to become the Preamble of the constitution in slightly modified form. The resolution was unanimously adopted on 22nd January 1947.

Adoption of National Flag, National Anthem and National Song

  • The Constituent Assembly ratified India’s membership of the commonwealth in May 1949. Also, it adopted the National Song and National Anthem on 24th January 1950. Adopted the National Flag on 22nd July 1947.

Important Committees and Members of Constituent Assembly

  • The assembly had 15 women members which were reduced to 9 after partition.

Important committees of the constituent assembly along with their respective chairpersons are as follows:

Important CommitteesChairperson of the Committee
Union Powers CommitteeJawahar Lal Nehru
Union Constitution CommitteeJawahar Lal Nehru
Provincial Constitution CommitteeSardar Patel
Drafting CommitteeB.R Ambedkar
Rules of Procedure CommitteeDr. Rajendra Prasad
Steering CommitteeDr. Rajendra Prasad
Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights, Minorities and Tribal and Excluded Areas

Vallabh Bhai Patel 

States Committee (Committee for negotiating with states)Jawahar Lal Nehru
National Flag and HOC CommitteeRajendra Prasad
Committee for the function of the Constitution AssemblyG.V. Mavlankar
House CommitteeB. Pittabhi Sitaramayya
Language CommitteeMoturi Satyanarayana
Order of Business CommitteeK M Munshi
  • Members of the Drafting Committee
    • Dr. B.R Ambedkar (Chairman)
    • Alladi Krishnaswamy Ayyar
    • Dr. K.M Munshi
    • N. Gopalaswamy Ayyangar
    • Syed Mohammad Saadullah
    • N Madhava Rau
    • TT Krishnamachari

  • Four Sub Committees under Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights, Minorities and Tribal and Excluded Areas
    • Fundamental Rights Sub-Committee: J. B. Kriplani
    • Minorities Sub-Committee: Harendra Coomar Mookerjee
    • North-East Frontier Tribal Areas and Assam Excluded & Partially Excluded Areas Sub-Committee: Gopinath Bordoloi
    • Excluded and Partially Excluded Areas (Other than those in Assam) Sub-Committee: A V Thakkar

Constitution of India

  • The assembly met for 11 sessions, took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to frame up the final draft, sat for 141 days in total and the draft constitution was considered for 114 days. Total amount incurred was around rupees 64 lakhs.
  • The final draft of the constitution was adopted on 26th November 1949 and it contained 8 schedules, 22 parts, and 395 articles.

VARIOUS SOURCES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION

SourceFeatures Adopted
Government of India Act of 1935
  • Federal Scheme
  • Office of the governor
  • Judiciary
  • Public Service Commissions
  • Emergency provisions
  • Administrative details
British Constitution
  • Parliamentary government
  • Rule of Law
  • legislative procedure
  • single citizenship
  • cabinet system
  • prerogative write
  • parliamentary privileges
  • bicameralism
US Constitution
  • Fundamental rights
  • independence of the judiciary
  • judicial review
  • impeachment of the president
  • removal of Supreme Court and high court judges
  • post of vice-president
Irish Constitution
  • Directive Principles of State Policy
  • the nomination of members to Rajya Sabha
  • Method of election of the president
Canadian Constitution
  • Federation with a strong Centre
  • Vesting of residuary powers in the Centre
  • The appointment of state governors by the Centre
  • Advisory jurisdiction of the Supreme Court
Australian Constitution
  • Concurrent List
  • freedom of trade
  • Commerce and intercourse
  • Joint sitting of the two Houses of Parliament
Weimar Constitution of GermanySuspension of Fundamental Rights during Emergency
Soviet Constitution (USSR, now Russia)
  • Fundamental duties
  • idea of justice (social, economic and political) in the Preamble
French ConstitutionRepublic and the ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity in the Preamble
South African ConstitutionProcedure for amendment of the Constitution and election of members of Rajya Sabha
Japanese ConstitutionProcedure established by Law

Features of Indian Constitution

In the original form, it had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules. It consists of approximately 145,000 words, making it the second largest active constitution in the world. Currently, it has a preamble, 25 parts with 12 schedules, 5 appendices, 448 articles, and 101 amendments.

Features of the Constitution

  • Lengthiest constitution
  • Drawn from Different Sources
  • Federal System and Unitary Features
  • Parliamentary Form of Government
  • Parliamentary Sovereignty and Judicial Supremacy
  • Independent and Integrated Judicial System
  • Directive Principles
  • Rigid and Flexible

 

Making of the Constitution of India Quiz - Practice Here

Attempt SSC CGL 2021 Free Mock Test 

Looking for a single course with a multi-dimensional approach. Your search ends here. GradeUp presents 'SSC Foundation 2020-21', a course that caters to multiple exams.

SSC CGL 2020 Tier I : Score Booster Course | English and Hindi Batch Available | Join Now

Posted by:

Ashwini ShivhareAshwini ShivhareMember since Jan 2021
Share this article   |

Comments

write a comment
Load Previous Comments

SSC & Railway

CGLSSC GDDFCCILCHSLCPONTPCMTSStenoGroup DOthersCoursesMock Test
tags :SSC & RailwayGeneral AwarenessSSC CGL OverviewSSC CGL Exam DatesSSC CGL Apply OnlineSSC CGL Eligibility CriteriaSSC CGL Job Profile

SSC & Railway

CGLSSC GDDFCCILCHSLCPONTPCMTSStenoGroup DOthersCoursesMock Test
tags :SSC & RailwayGeneral AwarenessSSC CGL OverviewSSC CGL Exam DatesSSC CGL Apply OnlineSSC CGL Eligibility CriteriaSSC CGL Job Profile

Follow us for latest updates