Polity Study Notes for SSC Exams 2021: Polity has always been one of the important subjects under general awareness section. Every year 3 - 5 questions are asked from the polity. As two major SSC exams, ISSC CGL 2020-21 and SSC CHSL 2020-21 are approaching near, it would be apt to revise one important polity topic.
Today we will discuss the "Making of Indian Constitution" in this article. This notes would be useful for all upcoming SSC and Railway Exams 2021.
Making of the Indian Constitution
Key Timeline in the 1948 Constitutional Process
|1946||Britain decides on to grant independence to India and cabinet mission is dispatched to India to discuss modalities for transfer of power|
|Nov 1946||Formation of Constituent Assembly|
|11 Dec 1946||President of Constituent Assembly appointed|
|13 Dec 1946||Objective Resolution by Nehru|
|22 January 1947||Objective Resolution was adopted|
|14 August 1947||Proposal for creation of committees is tabled|
|15 Aug 1947||India Achieved Independence|
|29 August 1947||Drafting committee is established|
|6 December 1947||Constituent Assembly formally convenes for the first time, following elections, to start the process of writing a constitution.|
|4 November 1947||Draft is finalized and submitted|
|1948 – 1949||Constituent Assembly meets in sessions open to the public|
|26 November 1949||Constituent Assembly adopts final draft making it official|
|26 January 1950||Entry into force of the new constitution|
Important Acts in the Making of Indian Constitution
The making of the Indian Constitution was not as easy as it sounds. It consisted of a number of acts put together, before and after the independence. And some of the key acts are -:
The Government of India Act, 1919
- After this act, legislative councils were brought into existence in all the provinces of the Government. The British chose to adopt a bicameral structure of Government which had two separate governments, which is central and provincial.
The Government Act of 1935
- The enforcement of this law is considered to be one of the most significant events in the history of the Constitution of India. This act worked towards providing divided powers of governance into a Federal list, a provincial list, and a concurrent list.
- The act also granted more power and autonomy of self-governance to the provinces. This act also helped to set up the federal court, which is today known as the Supreme Court of India.
- The departure of the British from India was marked by this act. After this act, India officially became an independent and sovereign state. This act laid down the Foundation of the Constituent Assembly which further worked on the drafting of the Constitution of India.
Formation of Constituent Assembly
- It was M.N Roy who proposed the idea of an independent constituent assembly for India in 1934.
- The constituent assembly was formed as per the guidelines suggested by the Cabinet Mission Plan, 1946.
- The mission was headed by Pethick Lawrence and included two other members apart from him – Stafford Cripps and A.V Alexander.
- The elections to form the assembly took place in July-August 1946 and the process was completed by November 1946.
- The total strength of the assembly was 389. However, after partition only 299 remained. It was partly elected and partly nominated body.
First Meeting of the Constituent Assembly
- The first meeting of the assembly took place on 9th December 1946 and was attended by 211 members.
- Dr Sachhidanand Sinha became the temporary president of the assembly following the French practice.
- On 11th December 1946, Dr. Rajendra Prasad and H.C Mukherji were elected as President and Vice-President respectively.
- Sir B.N Rau was appointed as the constitutional advisor to the assembly.
Objective Resolution By Nehru
- On 13th December 1946, Pt. Nehru moved the Objectives resolution which later went on to become the Preamble of the constitution in slightly modified form. The resolution was unanimously adopted on 22nd January 1947.
Adoption of National Flag, National Anthem and National Song
- The Constituent Assembly ratified India’s membership of the commonwealth in May 1949. Also, it adopted the National Song and National Anthem on 24th January 1950. Adopted the National Flag on 22nd July 1947.
Important Committees and Members of Constituent Assembly
- The assembly had 15 women members which were reduced to 9 after partition.
Important committees of the constituent assembly along with their respective chairpersons are as follows:
|Important Committees||Chairperson of the Committee|
|Union Powers Committee||Jawahar Lal Nehru|
|Union Constitution Committee||Jawahar Lal Nehru|
|Provincial Constitution Committee||Sardar Patel|
|Drafting Committee||B.R Ambedkar|
|Rules of Procedure Committee||Dr. Rajendra Prasad|
|Steering Committee||Dr. Rajendra Prasad|
|Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights, Minorities and Tribal and Excluded Areas|
Vallabh Bhai Patel
|States Committee (Committee for negotiating with states)||Jawahar Lal Nehru|
|National Flag and HOC Committee||Rajendra Prasad|
|Committee for the function of the Constitution Assembly||G.V. Mavlankar|
|House Committee||B. Pittabhi Sitaramayya|
|Language Committee||Moturi Satyanarayana|
|Order of Business Committee||K M Munshi|
- Members of the Drafting Committee
- Dr. B.R Ambedkar (Chairman)
- Alladi Krishnaswamy Ayyar
- Dr. K.M Munshi
- N. Gopalaswamy Ayyangar
- Syed Mohammad Saadullah
- N Madhava Rau
- TT Krishnamachari
- Four Sub Committees under Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights, Minorities and Tribal and Excluded Areas
- Fundamental Rights Sub-Committee: J. B. Kriplani
- Minorities Sub-Committee: Harendra Coomar Mookerjee
- North-East Frontier Tribal Areas and Assam Excluded & Partially Excluded Areas Sub-Committee: Gopinath Bordoloi
- Excluded and Partially Excluded Areas (Other than those in Assam) Sub-Committee: A V Thakkar
Constitution of India
- The assembly met for 11 sessions, took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to frame up the final draft, sat for 141 days in total and the draft constitution was considered for 114 days. Total amount incurred was around rupees 64 lakhs.
- The final draft of the constitution was adopted on 26th November 1949 and it contained 8 schedules, 22 parts, and 395 articles.
VARIOUS SOURCES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION
|Government of India Act of 1935|
|Weimar Constitution of Germany||Suspension of Fundamental Rights during Emergency|
|Soviet Constitution (USSR, now Russia)|
|French Constitution||Republic and the ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity in the Preamble|
|South African Constitution||Procedure for amendment of the Constitution and election of members of Rajya Sabha|
|Japanese Constitution||Procedure established by Law|
Features of Indian Constitution
In the original form, it had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules. It consists of approximately 145,000 words, making it the second largest active constitution in the world. Currently, it has a preamble, 25 parts with 12 schedules, 5 appendices, 448 articles, and 101 amendments.
Features of the Constitution
- Lengthiest constitution
- Drawn from Different Sources
- Federal System and Unitary Features
- Parliamentary Form of Government
- Parliamentary Sovereignty and Judicial Supremacy
- Independent and Integrated Judicial System
- Directive Principles
- Rigid and Flexible
Making of the Constitution of India Quiz - Practice Here
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