SSC GK Economy Notes: Inflation and its types

By Sachin Awasthi|Updated : April 9th, 2021

We have discussed SSC& Railway GK Notes for Economics section. These Economic Notes based on Inflation and its types will be beneficial for upcoming SSC & Railway Exams 2020.

GK Notes based on Inflation and its types

Inflation

  • The general rise in the price level of goods and services.
  • It is estimated as the percentage rate of change in price index over the reference time-period.
  • Currently in India inflation rate is measured with the help of Consumer Price Index- combined (Base year- 2012).
  • Till April 2014, Inflation rate was measured with the help of WPI (Wholesale Price Index).
  • Rate of Inflation= (Current period price index-Reference period price index)/(Reference Period Price Index)×100

We have discussed SSC& Railway GK Notes for Economics section. These Economic Notes based on Inflation and its types will be beneficial for upcoming SSC & Railway Exams 2020.

GK Notes based on Inflation and its types

Inflation

  • The general rise in the price level of goods and services.
  • It is estimated as the percentage rate of change in price index over the reference time-period.
  • Currently in India inflation rate is measured with the help of Consumer Price Index- combined (Base year- 2012).
  • Till April 2014, Inflation rate was measured with the help of WPI (Wholesale Price Index).
  • Rate of Inflation= (Current period price index-Reference period price index)/(Reference Period Price Index)×100

Type of Inflation

Based on the rate of rising in Inflation

1. Creeping Inflation

  • Price rise at a very small rate (< 3 %)
  • It is considered safe and essential for the economy.

2. Walking or Trotting Inflation

  • Price rise at moderate rate (3 % < Inflation < 10 %)
  • Inflation at this rate is a warning signal for the Economy.

3. Running Inflation

  • Price rise at high rate (10 % < Inflation < 20 %)
  • It affects economy adversely.

4. Hyperinflation or Galloping Inflation or Runway Inflation

  • Price rise at very high rate (20 % < Inflation < 100 %)
  • This situation brings the total collapse of Economy.

Based on causes

  • Demand-Pull Inflation: When Inflation arises due to higher demand for goods and services over the limited supply.
  • Cost-Push Inflation:  When Inflation arises due to higher input cost (Example- raw material, wages etc.) for goods and services over the limited supply.

Other definitions-

1. Deflation

  • It is opposite to Inflation.
  • Reduction of general level of price in an economy.
  • In this price index measured is negative.

2. Stagflation: When stagnation and inflation coexist in the economy.
3. Stagnation: low national income growth and high unemployment.

4. Disinflation

  • When the rate of Inflation is at a slower rate.
  • Example:
    If the Inflation of last month was 4 % and the rate of inflation in the current month is 3 %.

5. Reflation: 

  • The deliberate action of government to increase the rate of inflation to redeem the economy from a deflationary situation.

6. Core Inflation: 

  • It is a measure of price rise in the economy excluding the price rise of some products (whose price is volatile and temporary in nature.

Effects of Inflation

1. Redistribution of income and wealth

  • Due to the effect of inflation, some group of people loses and another group of people gains.
  • Example-
    In case of debtors and creditors
    Debtor- gainer
    Creditor- loser
    In case of Producers and Consumers
    Producer- gainer
    Consumer- loser

2. Effects on Production and Consumption

  • Due to inflation, the demand decreases which curtails the production.
  • People try to use fewer services which lead to a decrease in consumption.

3. Unfavorable Balance of Payments

  • Export decreases and import increases from other countries which lead to a decrease in forex reserve.

Measures to control Inflation

1. Credit control-

  • It is used by RBI.

2. Increase in Direct Taxes

  • Due to the increase in direct taxes, people have less money available to them and low demand from them leads to a lower price.

3. Price Control

  • By fixing the maximum price limit by authorities.

4. Trade measures

  • Maintain proper supply in the economy by export and import of goods and services.

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Sachin AwasthiSachin AwasthiMember since Nov 2019
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Amit Kumar

Amit KumarNov 28, 2019

Sir Hindi me
Poonam Rathaur
Provide in Hindi plzzz
Mahipathi Raju
Update notes plse
Sagar Rada

Sagar RadaJan 1, 2020

thank you sir
Deepak Kumar Mehta
Anyone tell me economic subject teacher for SSC exam

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