Chemistry Notes on Polymers & Chemical used in Medicine

By PARUL RISHI|Updated : August 30th, 2023

In this article, we will discuss various types of polymers and their monomers. This article also includes various types of chemical that are useful in medicine and the pharmaceutical industry.

Polymers & Chemical used in Medicine


  • Polymers are large complex molecules that are made of some small repeating unit known as monomers.
  • Monomers are the building block of polymers.
  • Polymers can be natural and synthetic depends on its origin, e.g. Cellulose is a natural polymer and polythene is a synthetic or man-made polymer.
  • The process of formation of polymers from the respective monomers is known as polymerization.

Some important polymers are as follows:

Polythene: Monomers of polythene is ethylene and it is used in the manufacturing of packaging material, carry bags and bottles.

Polypropene: Its monomer is propylene and it is used in the manufacturing of bottles and crates.

Nylon: Nylon is a man-made synthetic fibre that is strong while very light in weight, properties that lead to a wide variety of uses, such as fabric, rope and luggage.

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC): Monomers of polyvinyl chloride is vinyl chloride and it is used in the manufacturing of pipes and insulation.

Teflon: Tetrafluoroethylene is used as monomers in the preparation of Teflon. Teflon is used in the preparation of nonstick kitchenware.

Bakelite: Its monomer is phenol-formaldehyde and it is used in the preparation of electrical insulation.

Natural rubber: Its monomer is isoprene.

Lexan: It is used in the preparation of bulletproof glass.

Melamine: It is used in the preparation of crockery.


  • Soap is a sodium salt or potassium salt of long-chain fatty acids having cleansing action in the water.
  • They are using as cleansing agents to remove dirt, oil from the skin and clothes.
  • Generally, soaps are prepared by heating animal fat or oil with alkalies like sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, this reaction is known as saponification reaction.
  • Glycerol is a by-product formed in the saponification reaction and it is used in the preparation of cosmetics, paints and even explosives.
  • The cleaning action of soap is due to micelle formation and emulsion formation.


  • Detergents have almost the same properties as soaps but they are more effective in hard water.
  • Detergents are generally ammonium or sulphonate salts of long-chain carboxylic acids.
  • The charged ends of these compounds do not form insoluble precipitates with the calcium and magnesium ions in water.

Various types of medicine:

Analgesics: Painkillers are called analgesics e.g. Aspirin, paracetamol and morphine. Acetylsalicylic acid is used in the preparation of aspirin.

Antimalarial Drugs: These drugs are used to treat malaria.

Sulpha drugs: Alternatives of antibiotics, sulphanilamide, sulphadiazine, sulpha gunamidine.

Antaoxide: Substances which remove the excess acid and raises the pH to an appropriate level in scotch are called antacids. It is caused by an excess of HCl in the gastric juice magnesium hydrate.

Epsom salt: Hydrated magnesium sulphate used in medicines to empty bowels.

Chloroform: A colourless liquid and it is used as an anaesthetic.

Saccharin: It is used by Diabetic patients in place of sugar.

DDT: It is used as an insecticide.

Hope this was useful to you. 

Happy Learning  


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