Indian Constitution Day is celebrated every year on 26 November after the BJP led Government in 2015 declared 26 November as Constitution Day by a gazette notification on 19 November 2015. Indian Constitution Day is also reminded as Indian Law Day or Samvidhan Diwas.
Why we celebrate it on 26 Nov? Let us find it out!
The Indian Constitution Day
November 26 has a unique historical significance as it was on this day in 1949 that the constitution was adopted and thereafter, came into force on 26 January 1950, marking the beginning of India as a republic.
History of Indian Constitution
- The demand for the Constituent Assembly was made in 1934.
- M.N. Roy, a communist party leader, was the first who mooted the idea.
- In 1940, it was taken up by the Congress party and finally, the demand was accepted by the British government. Later Indians were allowed to draft the Indian Constitution in the August offer.
- The Constituent Assembly for the first time met on 9 December 1946.
- Dr Sachchidananda Sinha was the first president of the Constituent Assembly.
- Drafting Committee was constituted under the chairmanship of Dr B.R. Ambedkar to prepare a Draft Constitution.
- On 24 January 1950, the members signed two handwritten copies of the document one each in Hindi and English.
- The first meeting of the Assembly was in New Delhi on 9 December 1946 and last till 24 January 1950. During this time a total of 11 sessions were held and met for around 166 days.
Interesting Facts About Indian Constitution
- The Indian Constitution was adopted on this day, back on 26 November 1949
- The Indian Constitution is the longest of any sovereign country in the world
- At the time of its commencement, it had 395 Articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules
- Today the Indian constitution has 464 articles under 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5 appendices, and 122 amendments
- The original Constitution of India was handwritten by Prem Behari Narain Raizada in a flowing italic style with beautiful calligraphy. Each page was beautiful and decorated by artists from Shantiniketan
- The original copies of the Indian Constitution, written in both Hindi and English, are kept in special Helium-filled cases in the library of the Parliament of India
- The Indian Constitution has drawn from the constitutions of various nations around the world such as France, the USSR, Germany, Canada, USA, Australia, Japan and more. For this reason, our constitution is often known as a bag of borrowings
Borrowed Features of Indian Constitution
- Nominal Head – President (like Queen)
- Post of Prime Minister
- Parliamentary Type of Govt.
- Bicameral Parliament
- Lower House more powerful
- Single Citizenship
- Speaker in Lok Sabha
- Cabinet System of Ministers
- Written Constitution
- Vice President as the exoffice Chairman of Rajya Sabha
- Fundamental Rights
- Supreme Court
- Provision of States
- Independence of Judiciary and judicial review
- Removal of the Supreme court and High court Judges
- Fundamental Duties
- Five year Plan
- Concurrent list
- Language of the preamble
- The provision regarding trade, commerce and intercourse
- Law on which the Supreme Court function
- Suspension of Fundamental Rights during the emergency
- Scheme of federation with a strong centre
- Distribution of powers between the centre and the states and placing. Residuary Powers with the centre
- Concept of Directive Principles of States Policy(Ireland borrowed it from SPAIN)
- Method of election of President Nomination of members in the Rajya Sabha by the President
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