Answer: 3- Mechanical advantage is lesser than velocity ratio.
In actual machines, Mechanical advantage is lesser than velocity ratio.
Mechanical advantage: When effort (P) balances a load (W) in simple machines, the ratio is called Mechanical advantage (MA).
M.A. = Load/Effort = W/P
Velocity Ratio(VR): Ratio between the distance moved by the effort to the distance moved by the load.
VR = distance moved by the effort(dp)/ distance moved by the load(dw)
Efficiency: In a simple mechanism, it is defined as the ratio of mechanical advantage to the velocity ratio.
An ideal machine's efficiency is 100% or unity, so the mechanical advantage equals the velocity ratio.
In the actual machine, efficiency is less than 1
η<1 ⇒ M.A./V.R. < 1 ⇒ M.A. < V.R.
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