Today, we are going to post IB ACIO GK Study Notes on World History. This is Part I of IB ACIO GK World History Study Notes. Notes are available in both English and Hindi language.
IB ACIO GK Notes on World History
The 16th AD is known as the Age of renaissance which literally means rebirth. It was preceded by the Dark Ages- an era where church dominated all spheres of life and society was drawn around land and land, in turn, was owned by Lords and people have to work on such land for their livelihood. Such type of system based on land is called feudalism.
Italy was the first to come in contact with renaissance due to its building prosperity brought to it by trade with the east. Famous Italian writers include- Machiavelli, Petrarch, Dante, and Boccaccio. Whereas Famous Italian painters are- Leonardo Da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael. While Bruno and Galileo were the famous Italian Astronomers.
Renaissance then proceeded towards France and Germany, and gradually took the whole of Europe into its grip. The plays of Shakespeare, Utopianism of Thomas More, and the essays of Francis Bacon. In Germany, in the year 1456, Printing press was invented in Gutenberg.
The age of rebirth didn’t spare even religion, and there started Reformation movement, which was against the corruption and unethical practices (like indulgence- which was the letter that remitted punishments of the sinners who bought them) that were rusting the very roots of Catholic Church. The Reformation was started by Martin Luther in Wittenberg, Germany in 1517.
Henry VIII of England declared himself as the head of the Church in 1534. Protestantism arose in Germany by Martin Luther and on the similar lines, Calvinism was started in Switzerland.
With the development of compass, quality ships, increased knowledge of cartography and so on, many voyages were taken up.
Following is the comprehensive list of such voyages:
Cape of good hope
Vasco Da Gama
Sea route to India via cape of good hope
Strait of Magellan (Tip of south America)
Islands of Tasmania and New Zealand
Captain James Cook
The age of enlightenment that arose in response to modernity in this age was characterised by humanism and reasons.
GLORIOUS OR BLOODLESS REVOLUTION- 1688
It took place in 1688 in England. Under this James II, ensured freedom of worship for Catholics, which united the Whigs (generally supported constitutional monarchy and the role of the aristocracy) and Tories (supported a stronger monarchy) of the Anglican Church, against him. He was eventually made to leave the thorn, as the Anglicist requested the William of orange, ruler of Holland to succeed the English throne. This ended the rule of Stuarts, and gave supremacy to the parliament.
Began around 1750s in Britain, this revolution transformed societies from agriculture to industrial based. This revolution was accompanied by invention in textile industries like spinning jenny in 1764 by James Hargreaves, water frame in 1769 by Richard Arkwright, mule in 1779 by Samuel Crompton and Power loom in 1785 by Edmund Cartwright.
Other invention includes steam engine by Thomas Savery which was crucial in the further of such engine especially that of James watt which led to development of the railways.
It’s the struggle between 13 colonies of England in North America and Britain, as the former as declared independence from the latter.
There were many events that led up to the revolution and they are- stamps Act of 1765- which imposed taxes on all business transactions, tax on tea in 1767, Boston tea party of 1773- where a ship full of tea crates were not allowed to unload its crates and instead these crates were pushed into the ocean.
Such face off with Britain led to 1st continental congress in Philadelphia in 1774 (it was represented by 12 colonies, Georgia didn’t participate) and ultimately led to starting of war in 1775. On 4th July 1776, Declaration of Independence was made and it was authored by Thomas Jefferson.
By the treaty of Paris in 1783, English acknowledged American Independence and George Washington was elected as the first president of USA.
FRENCH REVOLUTION: 1789-93
Such revolution gave to humanity the idea of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity. It began in 1789, and among other factors it was due to the Poor and whimsical governance of King Louis XVI. The beginning of the revolution was characterised by the storming of the bastille prison, which people did largely because they were fed up with the king’s rule.
To spark such revolt, it was the ideas of thinker like Montesquieu (1689-1775), Voltaire (1694-1778), and Rousseau (1712-1778) which gave the required impetus to such events.
Moreover the French society was divided into the three estates- first is the clergy, second is the nobility, and third is commoners. And it is the third estate which bore all burden of taxes.
Declaration of rights of man and citizens, which became the preamble of the constitution, was formed by the national government which ruled from 1789-91 and was a limited monarchy. However on September 21 1792, France became the republic and soon after, reign of terror begun spearheaded by Robespierre, who extensively used guillotine to first remove opponents of French ideals and later on, upon anyone who decides to dissent.
In 1795 France had directorate form of government, which rewrote the constitution and made the right to vote conditional. And in finally in 1799, it was Napoleon Bonaparte, who brought Military rule thus beginning the era of Napoleonic war which ranged across 1803-1815.
Note: We will also share Part II & Part III for IB ACIO GK Study Material.
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