Metal Casting: Metal Casting Processes, Types, Advantages

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 25th, 2023

The earliest Metal Casting that has been discovered is a copper frog, which is thought to have been created in Mesopotamia about 3200 BCE when copper was a widely used material. Later, iron was found, perhaps about 2000 BCE. However, the first cast iron manufacturing did not start until about 700 BCE in China. Interestingly, around 645 BCE, China also developed the sand molding technique for metal casting.

Since ancient times, casting techniques have been frequently utilised to create sculpture (particularly in bronze), jewellery made of precious metals, tools, and weaponry. 90 per cent of durable items, such as automobiles, trucks, trains, aeroplanes, mining and construction equipment, and more, are made of highly developed castings. The technique of metal casting of useful items has evolved over thousands of years to become more precise and mechanised, yet the procedure has largely not changed at its foundation.

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What is Metal Casting?

Metal casting is most frequently used to create intricate forms that would be challenging or expensive to create using alternative techniques. Many of the metal items we use daily are made using it, including school bus pedals, railway wheels, automobile parts, and more.

Metal Casting Definition

Metal casting is “ A manufacturing process in which metal is poured into a mould cavity, cooled, and then shaped into the desired shape before being removed from the mould, is called as the metal casting process. The oldest and most important industrial process in history is probably metal casting.

Additionally, metal recycling serves as a cost-effective supply of raw materials for metal casting foundries, thereby lowering the amount of discarded metal that may otherwise wind up in landfills.

Metal Casting Process

When compared to machining an item out of solid metal, metal casting is frequently a less expensive way to make a piece. But the metal casting process is a little time-consuming. The various steps involved in the process of making a product through metal casting are listed below:

  1. Patternmaking: The replica of the casting’s exterior is known as a pattern. Wood, metal, plastic, or plaster are common materials for patterns. Patternmaking is critical in industrial part-making because accurate calculations are required to make components fit and operate together.
  2. Core making: An extra piece of sand or metal is used to mould the internal form for a hollow casting. This piece is called the core.Cores are generally sturdy yet collapsible, allowing for easy removal from the completed metal casting.
  3. Molding: Melted metal is poured into the mould cavity and allowed to harden. After the casting has formed, the shakeout process occurs, in which the moulds are vibrated to remove sand from the casting. Typically, removed sand is collected, cooled, and recycled for use in subsequent castings. Sand Casting Conditioner enhances the process of separating sand from castings by removing and chilling sand and castings and evaporating moisture. The end product is a clean cast.
  4. Cleaning: The cast metal piece is taken from the mould and fettled in this final stage. The object is cleansed of any moulding material, and rough edges are eliminated during the fettling.

Advantages of Metal Casting

As with any other manufacturing process, a basic understanding of the process and its benefits and cons is required for generating low-cost quality engineer products. Some advantages of the metal casting process are listed below.

  • Internal cavities and hollow portions are simple to cast in metal casting.
  • Casting can be used to cast materials that are challenging or expensive to produce using other production methods.
  • Complex shapes can be created through metal casting.
  • The majority of metals can be cast.
  • Casting is less expensive for medium to large quantities than alternative manufacturing techniques.
  • One-piece casts allow for the production of substantial components.
Important Topics for Gate Exam
Internal and External Forces Lami’s theorem
Psychrometry Composite Material
Types of Patterns Gear Design
Ceramics System of Forces
Principle of Virtual Work Admixtures
Sand Casting Heat Treatment Process


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