Types of Stress

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 25th, 2023

In civil engineering, we deal with types of stress. In this, we generally calculate the load per unit area, and this measurement we call stress. But here, we have to study the types of stress because stress has different types of applications.

Here we get to know about what is stress and what type of stress exists. All different types of stress affect the structure differently; by their effect, we get the value of the design structure. This article explains the types of stress and all stress effects.

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What are the Types of Stress?

Stress is when any material is under load application; a resistance is developed per unit area. This is termed stress. We know that stress is classified by its application to nature. The types of stress are caused by deformation in a material; that deformation is termed a strain of the material. Both stress and strain as interrelated. The different types of stress are-

  • Direct stress – Tensile and Compressive stress
  • Shearing stress
  • Bearing stress
  • Bending Stress
  • Torsion stress

Direct Stress

When any object is directly applied under the load, its molecules resist that force by rearrangement. This rearrangement is developed in two forms: tensile or pulling or compressive or pushing. This is what we can say as tensile stress or compressive stress.

So among the different types of stress, direct stress is the primary one, and this immediate stress is classified as tensile stress when molecules lose their bond by stretching up by the applied load; in this way, material length is increased, but the cross-section area of material is reduced. At the same time, the other one is the opposite of tensile stress. In this, when pushing force is applied to any material, their bonds get overlapped, and restructuring of bonds reduces the material’s length but the cross-section increases. This is known as compressive stress.

Shearing Stress

Shearing stress is a type of stress such that when any force is applied on the object’s surface, it tries to deform the object in a parallel direction to the load, as a slipping or rubbing form. This deformation changes the internal angles of the molecular bond.

Shearing stress can be observed in daily life as blade motion during shaving hairs, the contact force between ground and slippers, water flowing over the floor or layer of water itself, or shearing stress in applying fluids by painting, etc.

Bearing Stress

The stress that develops between two body surfaces by their contact is known as bearing stress among the different types of stress. These two bodies are forced together by this equal load to develop equal pressure. This stress is also known as crushing stress, the stress between the pier and the ground surface, etc.

Bearing stress is also defined as applied force per unit area till that material can stand without failure or the material can hold the party without any significant deformation is known as bearing stress of the material.

Bending Stress

Among the different types of stress, bending stress is the stress developed by applying everyday stress, either static or dynamic, that will create resistance against the deformation per unit area; this is called bending stress. Either can be explained as when straight beams deflect so that deformation causes a curve into the shaft due to the developed stress known as bending stress.

Bending stress can be induced by normal tensile anxiety, compressive stress, shear stress, bearing stress, or torsional stress. When only a moment causes the bending stress in a beam, consider it a pure bending structure.

Torsional Stress

Among the different types of stress, torsional stress is the stress developed by the transverse load application. In other words, when a load is applied in the transverse direction, the upper and lower fiber of the material get compressive and tensile stress simultaneously, and the geometry of the material sample gets twisted.

Torsional stress application develops tensile or compressive stress in an equal or opposite direction. By this, a point is set between these stresses, known as the neutral zone. This neutral zone defines which type of material is very soft or tough.

Practice Questions for Type of Stress

Q1: What are two major classifications of stress?

Ans: Generally, stress can be classified into tensile and compressive stress. Tensile stress is the tensile force per unit area, and compressive stress is the compressive force per unit area.

Q2: What is the effect of shearing stress on a body?

Ans: Shearing stress acts tangentially on a cross-sectional area and tends to deform or rotate the body.

Q3: What is the effect of bending stress on a body?

Ans: Bending stress in a body generates due to the transverse load over it, and it will cause a bending moment across the whole beam span.

Q4: What is the difference between the axial type of stress and shearing stresses?

Ans: Axial stress in a body generates due to axial load, while shearing stress generates due to the effect of shearing load over the cross-section of a body.

Q5: What is the torsional type of stress?

Ans: Torsional stress in a body generates due to the external torque applied to the body. It will generate in the perpendicular direction of applied torque.

Q6: What is the difference between torsional stress and shear stress?

Ans: Torsional stress is also shear stress, but it induces due to the torsional load on the body, while shear stress is generated due to the tangential load applied to a section.

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