Schedules in the Indian Constitution
Schedules of the Indian Constitution are used to simplify the provision of the act and make them easier to understand by segregating the legal aspect from the additional information.
- Though these schedules are part of the Constitution, they are not kept in the constitution but are included as separate documents of great relevance.
- The concept of the Indian Constitution Schedule List was added because our constitution is the longest. Certain extra information needed to be added to the articles, which would complicate the constitution's understanding. Therefore schedules were added so that any additional information concerning the article or part can be added in it that is not added in the articles of the constitution.
- Rather than separating the information, if there were no such separation, the article itself would need to be updated every time additional information was added, or any amendment was made. It is not only the Indian Constitution that uses the schedule. There are many other laws for different purposes.
- In addition to creating a list of union territories and states, it also establishes the list of subjects under the jurisdiction of the Union, the state, or both.
- This makes it useful for various purposes that depend on the needs of legislation.
- Additionally, schedules can be used when additional information or clarification is required for a certain section or legislation article.
Features of Schedules in the Constitution of India
Schedules in the Indian Constitution simplify the process of understanding and analyzing the Indian legislation for the reader.
- It doesn't contain legal information but technical and administrative information that can be easily understood.
- All the texts of the additional information added to the schedules of the Indian Constitution are of the correct size and length.
- Due to their separate divisions, schedules make the process of amending the articles, adding or deleting any provisions, and making changes much easier.
- All the schedules are mentioned in chronological order of the provisions.
- Because of the schedules, it is possible to integrate the additional information into the articles' main text. For example, the salary of judges of the Supreme Court is defined in the second schedule and article 125.
- Schedules can be represented using various methods like graphs, flowcharts numbers to present the information that would help ensure that information being conveyed is as clear as possible.
Indian Constitution Schedule List
There are a total of 12 schedules in the Indian Constitution. Follow the table below to understand the 12 schedules of the Indian Constitution and the provisions given in them.
- Originally, there were 8 schedules in the constitution.
- The 9th schedule was added after the first constitutional amendment in 1951.
- Then in 1985, the 52nd amendment was bought in the 10th schedule in the constitution.
- The 73rd constitutional amendment was made in 1992, which added the eleventh schedule to the constitution, and finally, with the 74th amendment in 1992, the 12th schedule was added to the constitution.
12 Schedule of Indian Constitution
Articles of Indian Constitution
Brief Context to Schedule of Indian Constitution
Article 1 and Article 4
Names and Territorial Jurisdiction of States & UTs.
Articles: 59(3), 65(3), 75(6), 97, 125, 148(3), 158(3), 164(5), 186 and 221
The emoluments, allowances, and privileges of all constitutional authorities are covered in Schedule 2.
Articles: 75(4), 99, 124(6), 148(2), 164(3), 188 and 219
Oath & affirmation of all constitutional posts are covered.
Article: 4(1) and 80(2)
Rajya Sabha seat allocation
Scheduled areas and scheduled tribes
Article 244(2) and 275(1)
Tribal areas of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
Three legislative lists
Article 344(1) and 351
22 official languages
1st Amendment Act added the 9th Schedule of Indian Constitution
Article 102(2) and 191(2)
Disqualification of the members of State Legislatures & Parliament.
Panchayats - 73rd Amendment Act
Municipalities - 74th Amendment Act
First Schedule of Indian Constitution
Schedule 1 of the Indian Constitution deals with Article 1, which says that India shall be the union of states and territories of India. Shall specify the state and the territories thereof in the First Schedule.
- Article 152 says unless the context otherwise requires the expression state (doesn't include the state of Jammu and Kashmir). This means that Jammu and Kashmir were part of India as it was the territory of India but not as a state.
- , whenever any new state or UT is made or abolished, Schedule 1 is amended.
- The first amendment in Schedule 1 was made in 1956 by the formation of Andhra Pradesh.
2nd Schedule of Indian Constitution
Schedule 2 deals with the constitutional authorities' emoluments, allowances, and privileges. These emoluments, allowances, and privileges are defined for the following:
- President of India
- Governors of States
- Chairman and deputy chairman of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
- Speaker of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
- Comptroller and Auditor General of India
- Judges of the Supreme Court
- Judges of the High Court
3rd Schedule of Indian Constitution
Schedule 3 of the Indian Constitution defines all the forms of oath for all the constitutional authorities. The oath of Presidents, Governors, and Vice-Presidents aren't mentioned in the 3rd schedule.
- There are two forms of oaths: An oath of true faith and allegiance and an Oath of secrecy.
- The oath of secrecy is taken by the ministers that they will keep all matters related to national security secret unless it is required to discharge duties.
- The 3rd Schedule has various types of oaths and affirmations for Union Ministers, State Ministers, CAG, Parliament Election Candidates, Members of Parliament, State Legislature Election Candidate, State Legislature Members, Judges of the Supreme Court, and Judges of High Courts.
4th Schedule of Indian Constitution
Schedule 4 deals with the seat allocation of the Rajya Sabha. Rajya Sabha is indirectly elected in the states by proportional representation. This means the number of members in the Rajya Sabha will be directly proportional to the population in the state.
- It defines the absolute number of members that the state sends to the Rajya Sabha.
- Rajya Sabha has a total strength of 250 members, out of which 12 are chosen by the President of India, and the rest 238 represent the states.
- Currently, Rajya Sabha has 245 members, of which 233 are the representatives of the states and 12 are appointed by the President of India.
5th Schedule of Indian Constitution
Schedule 5 of the Indian Constitution talks about the administration of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes, and all the areas special attention of the government due to the disturbed conditions.
- This excludes Assam, Mizoram, Meghalaya, and Tripura.
- Some areas within the state are administered by the federal government, where the tribals represent most of the population.
- Several indigenous tribes are scheduled and identified in our constitution but are socio-economically backward.
6th Schedule of Indian Constitution
Schedule 6 deals with Assam, Mizoram, Tripura, and Meghalaya states.
- The administration of people living in the above-mentioned four states is administered under the 6th Schedule.
- Assam, Mizoram, Tripura, and Meghalaya are granted autonomous district councils under the sixth schedule to protect the rights of tribal people.
- In the constitution of India, Articles 224(2) and 275(1) contain this provision.
7th Schedule of Indian Constitution
Schedule 7 is the foundation of federalism. It is called the division of legislative powers. As per the 7th Schedule of the Indian Constitution, the power of legislation is divided into 3 lists:
- Union list: The union legislature makes the laws on subject matters of union and concurrent lists
- State list: The state-list legislature can make the laws on the state and concurrent lists.
- Concurrent list: Concurrent is common to both union and state legislatures.
8th Schedule of Indian Constitution
Schedule 8 deals with the languages recognized by the constitution. It is also covered in part XVII in article 343. There are 22 official languages observed by the constitution of India.
- Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, Bodo, Santhali, Maithili, and Dogri are the official languages of India.
- There were only 14 languages earlier, but the Sindhi language was added after the 21st amendment in 1967.
- Later, with the 71st amendment, Konkani, Nepali, and Manipuri languages were added to the list.
- And finally, with the 92nd amendment, Bodo, Dogri, Santhali, and Maithili were added to the list in 2004.
9th Schedule of Indian Constitution
Schedule 9 of the Indian Constitution deals with land reforms and regulations. The central focus of Schedule 9 is to dismantle the zamindari system and implement land reforms and regulations. Furthermore, the act also includes the regulations and acts of parliament.
- Among other things, it is intended to safeguard legislation covered in the 1st amendment act from judicial scrutiny based on infringements of fundamental rights.
- As a result of the events of 24 April 1973, the supreme court ruled in 2007 that the statutes that are part of this timetable will now be reviewed by the courts
10th Schedule of Indian Constitution
In 1985 the 52nd Constitutional Amendment Act was introduced in anti-defection law to prevent dissidents from switching parties instead of gains in the parliamentary or state legislature elections, which led to the introduction of the 10th schedule.
With the further refinement of the 91st Constitutional Amendment Act 2003, it was made even more comprehensive.
11th Schedule of Indian Constitution
Schedule 11 deals with the rural self, rural local government, and Panchayati Raj institutions.
- To fulfill their role as local governments, the Indian Constitution specifies the panchayat's responsibilities, powers, and authority.
- This schedule was added to the 73rd amendment Act of 1992.
- For panchayats to perform local government functions, state legislatures must enact laws that provide them with powers and authorities
12th Schedule of Indian Constitution
Schedule 12 of the Indian Constitution is related to the functions of municipalities.
- As local government municipalities are required to abide by the provisions of Scheduled 12 of the Indian Constitution.
- Schedule 12 was added by the 74th Amendment Act of 1992.
- The powers and responsibilities of a municipality are defined in article 243, which would define its role as a self-governing Institution.
Schedules of Indian Constitution UPSC
Schedule of Indian constitution UPSC topic is part of Indian polity that is GS2 subject of UPSC Mains. It is a critical topic from the perspective of UPSC Prelims as there are many amendments in the schedules, and they can be asked directly in the Prelims exam.
Schedules of Indian Constitution UPSC Question:
Question: Which of the following schedules of the Constitution of India contains provisions regarding anti-defection? [UPSC Prelims 2014]
- Second Schedule
- Fifth Schedule
- Eighth schedule
- Tenth Schedule
Question: Under which schedule of the Constitution of India can the transfer of tribal land to private parties for mining can be declared null and void? [UPSC Prelims 2019]
- 3rd schedule
- 5th schedule
- 9th schedule
- 12th schedule
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