Amendments in Indian Constitution – Important Amendments of Indian Constitution

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

There are a total of 105 amendments in Indian Constitution so far. All these amendments have brought significant changes to our Constitution over a period of time. India has the longest written constitution in the world, and through amendments, government makes relevant changes to it whenever required for the benefit of society. Amendment of Indian Constitution is a process that the Parliament uses to make changes in the Constitution. The process of Constitutional Amendment involves the adoption of a change to the Constitution by a majority vote of both houses through a bill.

The Latest Constitutional Amendment is the 105th which was introduced in August 2021. The present Constitution has been shaped by some Important Amendments of Indian Constitution, such as the amendment act to include the 9th schedule and the 42nd amendment act, which came to be known as the mini-constitution. Candidates preparing for the UPSC and other competitive exams can learn about all amendments in Indian Constitution here and their contribution to the present polity.

What is a Constitutional Amendment?

A constitutional amendment is a major part of the Constitution of India that includes provisions. Therefore, it needs to be modified relatively regularly to keep it up to date. The constitution is not just a statement of values and philosophy. But it is mainly about the embodiment of these values in the institutional system. Despite the fact that constitutional amendments require a two-thirds majority in both houses of Parliament, the Indian Constitution is the world’s most amended national constitution.

Amendments in Indian Constitution

Many issues addressed by statute in other democracies must be addressed through a constitutional amendment in India because the Constitution spells out governmental powers in such detail. As a result, the Constitution is revised approximately twice a year.

  • The Constitution of India believed that it should be in line with the aspirations of the people and changes in society.
  • It did not see it as a sacred, stable, and immutable law.
  • So they have arranged to incorporate the changes from time to time.
  • These changes are called constitutional amendments.
  • Special procedures for amending some constitutions have proved so difficult that some or none of the proposed amendments have been ratified (in Japan) in several decades.
  • From jurisdiction to jurisdiction, there are many formal distinctions in how constitutional amendments are initially written and written after they are passed into law.
  • Constitutional amendments begin as bills and become law as Acts of Parliament in some jurisdictions, including Ireland, Estonia, and Australia.
  • It can also happen when a special process is needed for the change to take effect.

Important Amendments of Indian Constitution

There are 105 Amendments to the Indian Constitution since it was first enacted in 1950. The Constitution is one of the most critical documents that India has ever produced. It is a document that has helped shape India’s political and social history for generations to come. So that it can keep enlightening us and subsequent generations, we must take decent care of it.

As the Constitution is called a living document, it is essential that the law of the land keeps changing with time and keeps up with society. Important amendments of Indian Constitution for the UPSC Exam are all listed here.

Important Constitutional Amendments Details
First Constitutional Amendment Act 1951 – In the First Amendment act, the state was given due responsibility to make the advancement of the economically backward class people through various provisions and policies.

– The 9th schedule was also added that protected the land reform laws that included it from the judicial review.

– It added restrictions on freedom of speech and expression, such as friendly relationships with foreign countries, support for an offence, and public orders. This also made the restriction justifiable and reasonable in nature.

Second Amendment Act, 1952 In the Second Amendment act, the representation scale of the Lok Sabha was altered and readjusted; it states that one member of the Lok Sabha can represent more than 7.5 Lac people.
Fourth Amendment Act, 1955 A few more acts were included in the fourth amendment act’s ninth schedule.

This law protects people’s homes and possessions from arbitrary searches and seizures. Those searches were considered unreasonable under the law that came under this act.

Seventh Amendment Act,1956 – The union territories were introduced.

– The thought of having a single common High Court for two or even more states was also introduced in the seventh act.

– There was the abolition of A, B, C and D states.

– 14 States and six union territories were newly formed.

Ninth Amendment Act,1960 The Indo-Pak Accord of 1958, a treaty involving India and Pakistan, culminated in transformations to the Indian territory.
10th Amendment of Indian Constitution 1961 In the 10th amendment act, the incorporation of Dadar, Nagar and Haveli in the union of India was made as a union territory.
12th Constitutional Amendment, 1962 This act incorporated Goa, Daman and Diu as union territories.
13th Amendment Act,1962 As a result of article 371A, Nagaland has been granted special status.
14th Amendment in Constitution – Pondicherry was included in the Indian Union Territory.

– The Council of Ministers and the legislature were provided to union territories such as Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Daman and Diu, Goa, and Puducherry.

19th Amendment of Indian Constitution 1966 In this act, the system of election tribunals was removed, and the power to hear the election petition was in the hands of the high courts.
21st Amendment Act,1967 In this constitutional Amendment, the Sindhi language was made a language into the 8th schedule of the Indian Constitution
24th Amendment Act,1971 The President’s assent was made mandatory to constitute the Amendment Bill.
31st Amendment Act,1972 The seats of the Lok Sabha, which was earlier 525, were increased to 545 through this Amendment of Indian Constitution.
35th Amendment Act,1974 As a result of this Constitutional Amendment, Sikkim’s status as a protectorate state was terminated, and it was given that of an associate state.
36th Amendment Act,1975 India made Sikkim a full-fledged state.
42nd Amendment Act,1976 Known as the mini-constitution, this Amendment is the most extensive in the Indian Constitution.
44th Amendment Act,1978 The Janata government enacted this Amendment to the Indian Constitution, which is one of the most important changes
61st amendment act, 1889 In this act, the voting age of the citizens was reduced from 21 to 18 in both the Lok Sabha and the legislative assembly elections.
74th Amendment Act,1992 The urban local bodies were granted constitutional status. In addition, part 9A and schedule 12 of the Indian Constitution were added.
86th Amendment Act,2002 It made elementary education free and compulsory for children between 6 and 14 years of age.
92nd Amendment Act,2003 The number of official languages increased from 18 to 22. Bodo, Dogri, Maithili and Santhali were officially added to the Eighth schedule.
97th Amendment Act, 2011 In this Amendment of Indian Constitution, constitutional status was given to the cooperative societies.

They had the complete freedom to form cooperative societies.

101st Amendment Act, 2016 For the first time, the goods and services tax was introduced in society in this act.
102nd Amendment Act, 2018 In this act, the National Commission for the backward classes of society was granted constitutional status.
103rd Amendment Act, 2019 This act provided a maximum of 10% reservation for the weaker and backward class of citizens other than the classes that are mentioned in clauses four and five of article 15.
104th Amendment Act, 2020 This act extended the seat reservation of the scheduled tribe and scheduled caste in the Lok Sabha.

This was set to expire on 26th January 2020, but it was extended for another ten years for valid reasons.

105th Amendment act, 2021 Latest Constitutional Amendment regarding the state government’s power to prepare the SEBC list.

It also clarifies that Article 15 is not just for Indians but also applies to everyone in India, or we can say that the Amendment of Article 15 applies to all citizens regardless of their religion or caste, or language.

List of Amendments in Indian Constitution

Apart from the above acts, there are other amendments in Indian Consitution as well, which are listed below. These are also important to be covered for the UPSC preparation as these acts contribute to the change in society in various aspects, whether it is in education, religion, local administration, etc.

All Amendments in Indian Constitution PDF

The Indian Constitution is a set of laws and rules that govern the country’s government, society, and politics. It was finalized by the nation in 1947. It received additions in 1988 and 1999. Several clauses of the Indian Constitution are crucial for both Indians and outsiders. Download the PDF of all amendments in Indian Constitution from the direct link below.

Important Amendments of Indian Constitution PDF

The Constitution lays down clear guidelines for the functioning of Indian democracy. It also highlights parameters for how they ought to be modelled and how elections ought to be operated.

Latest Constitutional Amendment

The Recent Amendment of Indian Constitution is the 105 Constitutional Amendment Act. Under this, state governments have been given the power to prepare the SEBC list.

  • The lower House approved the latest Indian Constitutional Amendment of Parliament on 22nd March 2017.
  • The Amendment, which was made by a vote of 403-3 in favour and 62-6 against, clarifies that Article 15 of the Constitution states that “The people have a right to self-determination.”
  • It also clarifies that Article 15 is not just for Indians but also applies to everyone in India, or we can say that the Amendment of Article 15 applies to all citizens regardless of their religion or caste, or language.
  • Some changes have been made to land tenure laws, but these laws are still in force. Likewise, certain tweaks have been made to other laws regarding religious freedom.
  • As per the latest Amendment, the operation of revising the Constitution is specified in Article 368 Part XX and deals as follows:
    • State legislatures cannot begin the process of amending the Constitution; only a bill in one of the Houses can be introduced.
    • The Bill doesn’t need the President’s previous approval to be introduced; either a minister or a private member may do so.
    • The Bill requires separate passages in each House. There is no mechanism for having a joint session of the two houses in the event of a disagreement.
    • A simple plurality of the state legislatures in half the states must also adopt the Bill if it strives to transform the federal provisions of the Constitution.
    • The President must sign the law; he cannot refuse to do so or send it back to Parliament for a second reading.
    • When the Bill becomes enforceable after the President signs it (CAA).

Provisions for Amendments in Indian Constitution

The power of Parliament to transmit a Constitutional Amendment and the mechanism for doing so are detailed in Part XX, Article 368. It inhibits the Indian Parliament’s arbitrary jurisdiction.

  • The Bill is broadcasted to the President for prior consent after collecting a solid vote in both Houses and backing from the state legislatures.
  • A substantial majority must approve the Bill in each House.
  • There isn’t a mechanism for a joint sitting in the event of revisions.
  • Updates to Article 368 provisions, such as changing federal features, require acceptance by at least half of the states.

Types of Constitutional Amendment

There are three ways to change the Constitution:

  • The Parliament approved the amendment with a simple majority.
  • In some instances, a great majority of the Parliament amends a law.
  • At least 50% of the state legislatures must ratify an amendment made by a special majority of the Parliament.

There are countless distinct kinds of changes that the Constitution can accommodate. For example, it allows for amendments to be made at any time to adapt to changing circumstances.

  • A handful of clauses in the Constitution are also supposed to deter civil liberties and guarantee that people can pursue their rights without being afraid of retribution and worrying about punishment.
  • It also protects privacy rights and ensures people have access to information about their private lives.
  • The Constitution is also one of the few legal documents that have survived the ravages of time.
  • It has survived many changes in its form over time, including changes to its wording and content.
  • This makes it an invaluable source of knowledge for people worldwide who want to understand how the Indian government works and what changes are possible under different circumstances.

Important Constitutional Amendments UPSC

Constitutional Amendments is a vital portion of the UPSC Syllabus under the Indian Polity & Governance topic. Aspirants must be thorough with the important amendments of Indian Constitution to score well in the Prelims and Mains exams. Even in the UPSC interview, questions can be asked about these amendments to test the general knowledge of candidates.

Constitutional Amendment UPSC Questions

In addition to the questions listed below, candidates must check out the UPSC Previous Year Question Papers to determine the types of questions asked on the important amendments in the constitution of India.

Q1: Which constitutional amendment introduced the concept of Panchayati Raj institutions in India? – (a) 42nd Amendment, (b) 73rd Amendment, (c) 74th Amendment, (d) 86th Amendment

Answer: b) 73rd Amendment

Q2: The constitutional amendment that added the Fundamental Duties to the Indian Constitution is: (a) 42nd Amendment, (b) 44th Amendment, (c) 74th Amendment, (d) 86th Amendment

Answer: a) 42nd Amendment

Q3: The constitutional amendment that granted special status to Jammu and Kashmir and introduced Article 370 was: (a) 42nd Amendment, (b) 44th Amendment, (c) 73rd Amendment, (d) 90th Amendment

Answer: d) 90th Amendment

Q4: Which constitutional amendment introduced the Goods and Services Tax (GST) in India? – (a) 101st Amendment, (b) 108th Amendment, (c) 122nd Amendment, (d) 128th Amendment

Answer: c) 122nd Amendment

Important UPSC Notes:
Five Year Plan in India Sources of Indian Constitution
Cripps Mission Revolt of 1857
Military Exercises of India Right to Equality
AFSPA Biodiversity Hotspots in India
Kyoto Protocol Economic Planning in India
National Multidimensional Poverty Index Types of Soil in India
NITI Aayog Non Cooperation Movement
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