UPSC Prelims Syllabus 2022 - IAS Prelims Syllabus 2022 PDF for Paper 1 & Paper 2

By Shubhra Anand Jain|Updated : October 3rd, 2022

UPSC Prelims Syllabus is released by Union Public Service Commission every year along with the official notification. To clear the UPSC CSE Exam 2022, it is crucial to understand the UPSC Prelims Syllabus in a detailed and comprehensive manner. The IAS Prelims Syllabus includes two papers GS 1, and GS Paper 2. GS Paper 1 of the UPSC Pre Syllabus determines whether the score of the candidates and GS Paper 2 is qualifying in nature where the candidate has to score more than 33%.

Candidates preparing for the upcoming prelims exam must download the UPSC Prelims Syllabus PDF and kickstart their preparation. UPSC releases the IAS Prelims Syllabus in both English and Hindi. Below mentioned are all the details about the UPSC Prelims Syllabus 2022 which includes topics covered in both Paper 1 and Paper with topic weightage, latest changes, and more. 

Table of Content

What is the UPSC Prelims Syllabus?

The UPSC Prelims Syllabus is the syllabus for the first stage of the IAS Exam. The UPSC CSE is conducted in three stages, Prelims, Mains, and Interview. Candidates must clear each stage to be eligible for the next one. The UPSC Prelims is an elimination round as approximately 5-7% of applicants clear the UPSC Cutoff for Prelims.

The IAS Prelims Syllabus of UPSC 2022 Exam is divided into two parts

  • UPSC Prelims Syllabus for Paper 1 - General Studies 
  • UPSC Prelims Syllabus for Paper 2 - CSAT 

After completing the IAS prelims syllabus, aspirants must cover the UPSC Mains Syllabus in a timely fashion. Go through the official UPSC Syllabus to get access to prelims, mains, and optional syllabus in detail. 

UPSC Prelims Syllabus PDF Download

The official UPSC Prelims Syllabus 2022 is released along with IAS Notification by UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) on the official website. Download the latest UPSC Prelims Syllabus 2022 PDF by visiting the link to figure out a solid preparation strategy.

The UPSC Prelims Syllabus 2022 PDF mentioned here is in both English and Hindi. One of the best strategies to use the syllabus PDF is by pasting it in your study space and utilizing it like a checklist for the topics covered. 

UPSC Prelims Syllabus Paper 1

The UPSC Prelims Paper 1 Syllabus contains topics from Geography, Economy, General Science, Economy, Polity and Governance, and Current affairs. Below we will cover the details of UPSC Prelims Paper 1 Syllabus of each topic. As per the official syllabus, the following topics are included in UPSC Pre Syllabus for Paper 1

  • Current affairs related to important national and international events.
  • Indian Polity and Governance including topics such as Panchayati Raj, Political System, Constitution, Public Policy, Rights
    Issues, etc.
  • Geography - Indian and World Including Physical, Social, Economic Geography. 
  • Indian History along with Indian National Movement
  • Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.
  • General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity, and Climate Change 
  • General Science

Below mentioned is the detailed UPSC prelims syllabus subject-wise along with all the important topics to be covered for the upcoming UPSC CSE Exam. 

UPSC Prelims Syllabus for History 

This section of the UPSC Pre syllabus mentions that the question from the paper will be based on the “History of India and Indian National Movement”. Candidates must prepare well to score well in this part. The UPSC Prelims History includes Ancient, Medieval and Modern History. Check the list of topics to be covered in the history syllabus for UPSC Prelims. 

UPSC Prelims Ancient History Syllabus

  • Pre-Historic Times
  • Mahajanpadas
  • Mauryan Period
  • Post-Mauryan Period
  • Gupta Period
  • Indus Valley Civilization
  • Rig Vedic Period
  • Later Vedic Period
  • Jainism
  • Buddhism
  • Harshwardhana Period
  • Sangam Period (South-Indian Dynasties)

Medieval History Syllabus for UPSC Prelims

  • Major Dynasties of Early Medieval India (Pratiharas, Pallavas, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas)
  • Cholas and South-Indian Kingdoms
  • Establishment of the North-Indian Empire
  • The Mughal Empire
  • Early Muslim Invasions
  • The Delhi Sultanate
  • Afghans, Rajputs & Mughals
  • Marathas and the Other Indian States
  • The decline of the Mughal Empire
  • Vijaynagar Empire

UPSC Prelims Modern History Syllabus

  • Advent of Europeans
  • Revolt of 1857
  • Socio-Religious Reforms
  • Peasant Movements
  • Revolutionary Nationalism
  • Administrative Changes after 1857
  • Development of Civil Services
  • British Expansion
  • Administration before 1857
  • Economic Policies of the British
  • Impact of British Administration
  • Development of Education
  • Development of Press
  • Governors-General and Viceroys of India
  • Constitutional Development of Indian
  • Indian National Movement-I (1905-1918)
  • Indian National Movement-II (1918-1929)
  • Indian National Movement-III (1930-1947)

UPSC Prelims Syllabus Geography

As per the UPSC Prelims Geography syllabus, this section comprises Social, Physical, and Economic Geography of India and the world, Geography is a vast subject like History and it is also available as an optional subject choice in IAS Mains. Candidates must go through the detailed Geography Syllabus for UPSC to be able to plan their preparation in a more productive manner. 

IAS Prelims Syllabus of Indian Geography

  • Physiography of India
  • Drainage System
  • Climate
  • Soils in India
  • Natural Vegetation
  • Population
  • Settlements and Urbanization
  • Land Resource
  • Mineral Resource
  • Energy Resource
  • Agriculture and Basic Terminology
  • Recent development in agriculture
  • Productivity of Crops
  • Industry
  • Transport
  • Recent developments in Industry and Transport

IAS Prelims Syllabus of General Geography

  • Universe
  • Earth Evolution


  • Hydrosphere
  • Waves, Oceans, Currents, Tides
  • Marine Resources
  • Submarine Relief Features
  • Temperature and Salinity
  • Ocean, Deposits, and Corals


  • Earth’s Interior
  • Earthquakes and Volcanism
  • Distribution of Continents and Oceans
  • Landforms and their evolution
  • Geology and Rock System
  • Geomorphic Process
  • Landforms across the world


  • Atmosphere
  • Air Mass, Fronts, Cyclones, and Jet Streams
  • Wind and Pressure Belts
  • Precipitation
  • Inversion of Temperature
  • Insolation and Heat Budget
  • Climate Zones of the World

Bio Geography

  • Soil Characteristics
  • Vegetation Resources

Human and Economic Geography

  • Demography and Census
  • Economic Activities
  • Transport and Communication
  • International Trade
  • Human Development
  • Settlement

World Regional Geography

  • Continents, Countries, and Cities
  • Location in News

UPSC Prelims Environment Syllabus

The UPSC prelims paper 1 syllabus also includes environment and ecology. In recent years, many questions have been asked in this section. The UPSC Pre Environment Syllabus includes two major sections- Ecology & Environment and Biodiversity. Check the list of topics to be covered under the UPSC Prelims Syllabus of Environment. 

Ecology & Environment

  • Adaptation of Species and Interactions
  • Terrestrial Ecosystem
  • Origin of Life Forms
  • Basic Concepts of Ecology
  • Ecosystem Functions
  • Population Ecology
  • Aquatic Ecosystem
  • Nutrient Cycling


  • Basics of Bio-Diversity
  • Threats to Biodiversity
  • Animal and Plant Diversity
  • Mangroves
  • Coral Reliefs
  • Biodiversity Conservation
  • Estuaries
  • Wetlands

Other Important Topics

  • Resource Degradation and Management
  • Environmental Pollution
  • Climate Change
  • Environmental Governance

UPSC Prelims Syllabus Polity 

Indian polity and governance syllabus for UPSC Prelims contains Political System, Constitution, Public Policy, Panchayati Raj, Right Issues, etc. This is one

of the biggest sections of the UPSC Prelims Syllabus 2022 and approx. 12-14 questions are asked from polity. Go through the polity important topics for UPSC prelims 2022 below. Check the polity books for UPSC to prepare better. 


  • Features of preamble
  • 42nd Amendment
  • Swaran Singh committee

Constitution of India

  • The basic idea about All articles
  • Drafting committee and the making of the Constitution
  • Influence of other constitutions
  • Historical Background
  • Its salient features


  • The basic idea about 12 schedules


  • Article 5-11
  • PIO, NRI, OCI and Pravasi Bharatiya Divas
  • Citizenship Amendment Act of 2016
  • New policies, schemes, and recent changes in voting.
  • Privileges available for Indian citizens and foreigners

Union and its Territory

  • Article 1-4
  • Federal nature
  • Recent issues
  • State reorganization and different Commissions

Fundamental Rights (FR)

  • Article 12-35
  • Different types of Writs
  • Enforcement and Exceptional cases about FR’s
  • RTE and recent issues related to FR
  • A thorough understanding of Articles 14- 30 and Art. 32
  • Rights and privileges are available to citizens of India only and both to citizens and foreigners
  • 44th amendment act

Fundamental Duties (FD)

  • Article 51A
  • Enforcement of FDs
  • Recent issues with FD
  • Difference between FR and FD
  • Significance and Criticism

Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP)

  • The basic idea about Article and Article 36-51 and Article 368
  • Sources and key features of DPSP
  • Classification of DPSP
  • Keshavananda Bharathi, Minerva Mills, Golaknath Case, Maneka Gandhi case.
  • Important Amendments- 42nd Amendment, 44th Amendment, and 97th amendment
  • Comparison/ conflicts between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles


  • The basic idea of Article 52-73
  • Qualification and Election
  • Function and Powers- (Executive, Legislative, Financial, Judicial, Diplomatic, Military and Emergency Powers)
  • Prime minister and council of ministers- The basic idea about Article 74-75
  • Resignation and impeachment
  • Role and responsibilities and relationship with Prime minister, Council of Minister, Cabinet ministers.
  • Powers and Functions
  • Council of ministers
  • Resignation and Removal
  • Attorney general
  • Parliament


  • The basic idea of the article is related to the judiciary.
  • Qualification and appointment
  • Removal procedure
  • Recent controversy, verdicts, and constitutional provisions.
  • Powers of the Supreme court and high court

State Government-State Executive

  • Governor- appointment, removal, and special powers.
  • Executive, Legislative, Financial, and Judicial powers and discretionary of the governor
  • Chief minister and council of ministers
  • Power of chief minister
  • State Legislature
  • 7th constitutional amendment
  • Administration of Union Territories (UT)
  • Special provision for Delhi
  • Administration and jurisdiction in UT’s

Administration of Special Areas

  • Basic idea about 5thSchedule 6th Schedule
  • Difference between constitutional provisions related to Jammu and Kashmir
  • Recent issues related to Administration of Special Areas
  • Special provision for Jammu and Kashmir-Article 370

Emergency Provisions

  • National emergency- Article 352
  • Effects and implications of emergency
  • Role of President in emergency time
  • The State of FR, Lok Sabha, and Rajya Sabha
  • Revoking emergency
  • President’s rule or State emergency- Article 356
  • Financial emergency- Article 360
  • 44th amendment act

Panchayati Raj and Municipalities

  • Elections, auditing, powers and authority of panchayats
  • 3 tier structure
  • Relation with FR and DPSP
  • Schemes introduced
  • 73rd Amendment Act and the 74th Amendment Act
  • Metropolitan planning committee and urban development

State-Centre and Interstate Relations

  • The basic idea about Articles 262 and 263
  • Recent disputes between states, controversies, etc
  • New policies or schemes which impact interstate relation
  • Composition and functions of Interstate council and Zonal council
  • Inter-State trade and Commerce


Constitution Bodies

  • Election Commission
  • Finance Commission
  • National Commission for SCs and STs,
  • Composition, Powers and Functions, Removal of the Constitutional bodies
  • UPSC
  • SPSC
  • JPSC

Non-Constitutional Bodies

  • The basic idea of functions, Composition, and working of Non-Constitutional Bodies such as the Central Bureau of Investigation, National Human Rights Commission, Central Information Commission, Central Vigilance Commission, State Human Rights Commission, State Information Commission, etc.


  • The basic idea about Article 323A and tribunals under Article 323B
  • Different tribunals and the importance
  • Recent controversial issues related to tribunals

Current Affairs

  • Recent issues related to the above-mentioned categories
  • Important laws, schemes, programs, missions, and policies launched by the government.
  • Recent Government Bills and Governance- Actions

UPSC Prelims Syllabus for Economics

The Indian Economy Section is common to the UPSC Prelims Syllabus 2022, and Mains syllabus. It is also an optional subject in UPSC Mains. To score well in this section the candidates need to focus on current affairs related to the Indian economy. Check the economy syllabus for UPSC Prelims.

  • Basic Concepts - Macroeconomic and Microeconomic Concepts
  • Money & Banking - Money Function & Classification, Financial Markets & Its Instruments along with Banking Structure in India
  • Economic Measurements - National Income & Its Calculation, Economic Growth and Development and Inflation
  • Planning- Meaning, Objective & History, NITI Aayog, Planning Institutions along with Five Year Plans in India
  • Public Finance in India - Budgeting, Tax Structure in India
    Fiscal Policy, Centre-state Distribution
  • Open Economy - Foreign Trade Concepts, Recent Development
    International Organizations, Trade Agreements
  • Economic Sectors - Poverty, Employment, and Unemployment
  • Government Schemes and Programmes

UPSC Prelims Science Syllabus

In IAS Prelims Syllabus most of the questions come from topics/issues in the news. So candidates need to spend time preparing current affairs along with the UPSC books. Topics covered under the UPSC Prelims Syllabus for General Science are the following:

  • Cell Organelles – Plant Cell vs Animal Cell
  • Carbohydrates – Monosaccharides, Polysaccharides
  • Proteins – Amino Acids, Enzymes
  • Universe – Big Bang, Redshift, Blueshift
  • Star Formation – Stellar Evolution, Life Cycle of A Star
  • Solar System Formation – Nebular Theory of Laplace
  • India’s Three-Stage Nuclear Power Programme
  • Vitamins and Minerals – Deficiency Diseases
  • Sun – Internal Structure, Atmosphere
  • Nuclear Fission, Nuclear Reactor Types
  • Animal Tissues – Epithelium, Connective Tissues
  • Solar System – Planets, Inner Planets, Outer Planets
  • Nucleic acids – DNA and RNA, Recombinant DNA
  • Mitosis – Cell Cycle, Cell Division, Meiosis – Mitosis – Meiosis Comparison
  • Endocrine Glands and Hormones
  • Biological Classification
  • Five Kingdom Classifications of Plants and Animals
  • Plant Parts and Their Functions
  • Human Digestive System – Digestive Glands
  • Respiratory System – NCERT General Science
  • Fats – Healthy Fats and Unhealthy Fats
  • Sex Determination – Genetic Disorders
  • Diseases Caused by Microorganisms
  • Microbes in Human Welfare – Useful Microbes
  • Immunity – Human Immune System
  • Human Neural System – Human Brain
  • Muscular and Skeletal System
  • Inheritance – Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance, Chromosomal Theory, Human Genome Project
  • Blood – Blood Groups – Formed Elements
  • Circulatory System, Double Circulation
  • Excretory System – Kidney, Urine Formation
  • Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth
  • AIDS, Cancer – causes
  • Drugs and Alcohol Abuse
  • Diseases – Acute, Chronic, Communicable Diseases
  • Plant Kingdom – Halophytes, Bryophytes
  • Sexual and Asexual Reproduction in Plants
  • Classification of Animal Kingdom (Animalia)
  • Classification of Vertebrata (Phylum Chordata)
  • Human Reproductive System
  • Plants with Seeds – Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
  • Plant Tissue – Simple, Complex Permanent Tissue
  • Plant Nutrition – Photosynthesis, Nitrogen Cycle, Fixation
  • Biotechnology – Genetic Engineering – Processes and Applications
  • Atomic Theory – Structure of an Atom

UPSC Prelims Paper 2 CSAT Syllabus

The UPSC Prelims Paper 2 Syllabus is also known as the CSAT (Civil Service Aptitude Test) Syllabus, The CSAT Syllabus has been part of the IAS Prelims syllabus since its introduction. In the year 2014-15, CSAT was declared to be a “Qualifying Exam” with 33% passing criteria. This section aims to check the analytical skills of the IAS Aspirants. Candidates can download the UPSC Prelims Syllabus PDF and start their preparation as soon as possible.

  • Comprehension;
  • Interpersonal skills including communication skills;
  • Logical reasoning and analytical ability;
  • Decision making and problem-solving;
  • General mental ability;
  • Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) (Class X level), Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency, etc. — Class X level)

UPSC Prelims Syllabus in Hindi

उम्मीदवार पेपर 1 और पेपर 2 दोनों के लिए UPSC प्रीलिम्स सिलेबस को हिंदी में भी देख और डाउनलोड कर सकते हैं। UPSC Prelims Syllabus Paper 1 में निम्नलिखित विषय शामिल हैं:

  • राष्ट्रीय और अंतर्राष्ट्रीय महत्त्व की सामयिक घटनाएँ 
  • भारत का इतिहास और भारतीय राष्ट्रीय आंदोलन
  • भारत एवं विश्व का भूगोल : भारत एवं विश्व का प्राकृतिक, सामाजिक, आर्थिक भूगोल
  • भारतीय राज्यतंत्र और शासन- संविधान, राजनीतिक प्रणाली, पंचायती राज, लोकनीति, अधिकारों संबंधी मुद्दे इत्यादि
  • आर्थिक और सामाजिक विकास- सतत् विकास, गरीबी, समावेशन, जनसांख्यिकी, सामाजिक क्षेत्र में की गई पहल आदि
  • पर्यावरणीय पारिस्थितिकी, जैव-विविधता और जलवायु परिवर्तन संबंधी सामान्य मुद्दे, जिनके लिये विषयगत विशेषज्ञता आवश्यक नहीं है 
  • सामान्य विज्ञान

UPSC Prelims Syllabus Subject Wise Weightage

The IAS Prelims Syllabus for Paper 1 includes many subjects. The number of questions from each subject varies each year. The total number of questions asked in the UPSC Pre Paper 1 is 100 whereas 80 questions are asked in the UPSC CSAT paper. As per the UPSC Exam analysis, the following is the distribution of the UPSC Pre syllabus for the past few years. 









Current Affairs








































Science & Technology

















Important UPSC Topics

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IAS Officer Salary

UPSC Eligibility

UPSC Online Application

UPSC Exam Pattern

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UPSC Previous Year Question Papers

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UPSC Exam Analysis


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UPSC Prelims Syllabus FAQs

  • As per the official notification, the UPSC Prelims Syllabus includes General Studies and CSAT. The UPSC prelims paper 1 syllabus contains topics like history, geography, economics, polity, etc. whereas the UPSC prelims paper 2 syllabus is aptitude. Candidates preparing for the upcoming IAS exam must go through the IAS Prelims Syllabus in a detailed manner.

  • There are two papers in the UPSC Prelims syllabus which are Prelims Paper 1 and Paper 2. The IAS Prelims Syllabus for Paper 1 is General Studies and Paper 2 is CSAT. The merit list is prepared on the basis of paper-1 and paper-2 is the qualifying paper.

  • The UPSC Prelims Syllabus for Paper 1 is General Studies topics such as Current Events, History of India, India and World Geography, Indian Polity and Governance, General Issues, Economic and Social Development, Environment, General Science, etc. To clear the UPSC Cutoff, aspirants must prepare the UPSC pre syllabus for paper 1 in a comprehensive manner.

  • If the candidate has studied all the basic UPSC books of the UPSC Pre Syllabus and is aware of the current affairs then he/she can cover the Syllabus of UPSC Prelims in 3 months with hard work, and dedication. But it is recommended to start the preparation as soon as possible. It is important to be very clear about the topics to be covered from the UPSC syllabus as it will help you plan better.

  • The topics included in the UPSC Prelims Syllabus for Geography are Indian Geography, General Geography, Oceanography, Geomorphology, Climatology, Bio Geography, Human and Economic Geography, etc, One of the best Ncert Books for UPSC geography is Class 11 and 12 Fundamentals of Geography.

  • There is no doubt that NCERT books are crucial resources in the preparation of UPSC Prelims. When you begin your UPSC Preparation, go through all the NCERT books for UPSC to build a strong foundation for all subjects. Once you have a solid base for all subjects, move on to cover the advanced books. Therefore, for a few subjects NCERTs are enough for UPSC however as the competition is high, refer to more books.

  • Topics included under the Indian Polity and Governance of UPSC Pre syllabus are Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc. For IAS Prelims Syllabus for Polity, one must refer to M. Laxmikant to cover all important topics along with current affairs.

  • The UPSC Prelims Paper 2 syllabus same as the CSAT syllabus. The UPSC prelims paper 2 CSAT syllabus includes topics from general aptitude and reasoning. The CSAT is only qualifying in nature and the candidates need above 33% in it.

  • Candidates can download the Latest Prelims syllabus for UPSC Exam 2022 in PDF Format here for Free. UPSC releases the IAS Prelims Syllabus PDF along with the notification in both English and Hindi on the official website.

  • No, the IAS Prelims Syllabus has not changed since 2013. For a few years now, the UPSC Prelims Syllabus has remained the same for both GS and CSAT. Download the latest UPSC Pre Syllabus 2022 to get started.

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