Chief Minister of India: Powers, Functions, Appointment, Chief Minister UPSC Notes

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

Chief Minister is the state government’s head since they have genuine executive authority. Along with the Governor and the Advocate-General of State, he is supported by his council of ministers, who are all members of the state government. It is an extremely important position, and there are a plethora of roles and responsibilities that the Chief Minister has to fulfil in order to look after their respective states.

The Chief Minister is the head of the state government, similar to the Prime Minister, who heads the nation at the federal level. The term of the Chief Minister is 5 years as per Article 75 of the Constitution. However, the tenure also depends on the confidence he enjoys within the majority in the legislative assembly. Read about the appointment, powers and functions of the Chief Minister in this article to understand the various aspects of this prestigious post, important from the UPSC exam perspective.

Who is Chief Minister of India?

In India, the Chief Minister is a state’s head executive elected by the legislative assembly. They also serve as the head of the council of ministers and have the power regarding the various functionalities of their state. They are responsible for ensuring that various state departments are working properly and efficiently, in addition to ensuring the public well-being of the people.

Chief Minister of India is responsible for running everyday operations. They are the creators of various policies and are also responsible for conveying them. They are provided with the power to take decisions regarding the state and the people. Chief Minister of India is appointed by Governor. However, at all times, it is important they maintain the majority support in their favour or else they can get fired from the position.

Powers and Functions of Chief Minister

Chief Ministers have the most power in a state. As the executive head, they have various administrative powers and control over the state’s resources. They also have various functions which they have to perform every day as part of their duties. The powers and functions of a Chief Minister are listed below.

  • As per Article 167, Chief Minister serves as a point of contact between the Governor and the ministers of the state council.
  • He/She also serves as an advisor to the Governor of the state on the appointment of officials for the Public Service Commission and State Election Commission.
  • CM is the chairman of the State Planning Board.
  • They also have to listen to the grievances of the public and provide solutions for the same.
  • Chief Minister, for a year at a time, serves as vice-chairman of various zonal councils.
  • He/She is also appointed as the principal spokesperson for the state government.
  • CM is responsible for the management of any political crisis that may arise during his term.
  • Chief Minister also works as the leader of the MLAs elected by the public and looks after their work.

Appointment of Chief Minister

Chief Minister is appointed by the Governor of the state, and this is mandated by Article 164 of the Constitution. However, the Governor cannot arbitrarily pick anyone that they favour being the Chief Minister; there are certain rules and values they must adhere to exercise their power.

The CM of a state is the chief of the state. Hence, they are chosen from the party that garners the maximum votes in the state’s assembly election. The member of the party who becomes the Chief Minister can only attain and maintain his or her position as long as they have the support of the majority. They must also be a member of the state legislature themselves. If they are not, they can only be in their position for six months, after which they will be removed.

Chief Minister and Council of Ministers

The state council of Ministers consists of the ministers of the ruling party in the state who the Governor, on the recommendation of the Chief Minister, appoints. For states including Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and Odisha, a tribal affairs minister is also included in the list of the state council of ministers. This body is headed by the CM, who can assign and even restructure the portfolios of the council of ministers. The functions of Chief Minister in relation to the council of ministers are as follows:

  • The CM can initiate the resignation of any minister.
  • He/She leads the meeting of the council of ministers.
  • The functions of the ministers are regulated and monitored by the Chief Minister.
  • The council of ministers collapses after the CM resigns from his/her post.
  • He can recommend Governor for the appointment of any minister in his/her council.

Chief Minister Article

There are several articles related to Chief Minister and Council of Ministers which define their appointments, powers and functions, roles and responsibilities, etc. All UPSC aspirants must know about the Chief Minister article as questions on this topic are commonly asked in the Civil Services Prelims and Mains exams. The list of constitutional provisions of the CM is shared below:

Chief Minister Article

Article 163

Whenever there is a need, the State Governor is advised by the Chief Minister and the Council of Ministers

Article 164

The State Governor appoints the CM, who then advises the Governor on the appointment of other council ministers.

Article 167

All administrative decisions taken up by the Chief Minister and the council of ministers must be communicated to the governor.

Eligibility for Chief Minister of India

To become a Chief Minister of India, there are certain eligibility norms which must be fulfilled by the candidate. These norms are mentioned below:

  • Candidate must be 25 years of age or more.
  • Candidate must be a citizen of India.
  • Candidate must be a member of the state legislature.

There is no maximum age limit or education qualification criteria set for the role of Chief Minister. Hence, the only eligibility criteria one must fulfil are the ones mentioned above.

Relationship Between Governor and Chief Minister

The relationship between the Chief Minister and the Governor is crucial for the state. The powers of the Chief Minister are akin to those of the Prime Minister at the state level. Similarly, the power of the Governor is similar to those of the President of India at the state level. The Governor appoints the Chief Minister, and then CM advises the former on various matters. In times of crisis, Governor has the power to remove CM and impose President’s rule in a state. Governor is the actual state head as per the constitution. However, the actual executive and administrative power lie with the CM, who is chosen by the public.

Chief Minister of India Salary

Each Chief Minister of India is entitled to a salary of Rs. 50,000 per month. This salary is in addition to the salary they also receive as MLAs. It is important to note that before an individual becomes CM, they are MLAs of their respective area and receive the salary accordingly. Apart from the basic pay, Chief Minister also receives various state benefits such as housing, transport, pension, etc. Also, check the salary of high court judges in India here.

Tenure of Chief Minister of India

The tenure of the Chief Minister of India is 5 years. This tenure is purely based on the support they receive from the majority of the legislative assembly. During the five years of their tenure, if at any point in time, they lose the support of the majority, then they will be fired from their post as Chief Minister.

Chief Minister of India: State-Wise List

India has 28 states, and each state has its own Chief Minister. The state-wise Chief Minister list is provided below.

Chief Minister


YS Jagan Mohan Reddy

Andhra Pradesh

Pema Khandu

Arunachal Pradesh

Himanta Biswa Sarma


Nitish Kumar


Bhupesh Baghel


Arvind Kejriwal


Pramod Sawant


Bhupendra Patel


Manohar Lal


Jairam Thakur

Himachal Pradesh

Hemant Soren


Basavaraj Bommai


Pinarayi Vijayan


Shivraj Singh Chouhan

Madhya Pradesh

Eknath Shinde


N. Biren Singh


Conrad Kongkal Sangma


Pu Zoramthanga


Neiphiu Rio


Naveen Patnaik


N. Rangaswamy


Bhagwant Singh Mann


Ashok Gehlot


PS Golay


M. K. Stalin

Tamil Nadu

K Chandrasekhar Rao


Manik Saha


Yogi Aditya Nath

Uttar Pradesh

Pushkar Singh Dhami


Mamata Banerjee

West Bengal

Chief Minister UPSC

Candidates will find Chief Minister UPSC notes to be of great use to easily solve the questions based on this topic. In UPSC Prelims, especially, questions are often asked about the powers and functions of a Chief Minister, in addition to facts about their appointment, tenure, relationship with the governor, etc. Also, questions are often asked about those personalities whose tenure has been remarkable for one reason or another. Below, we have listed down some of the important facts about the Chief Minister of India that candidates will find useful while preparing for the UPSC exam.

  • The youngest Chief Minister of India is Pema Khandu, who took over the office of CM of Arunachal Pradesh in the year 2016 and still holds the position.
  • Sucheta Kriplani was the first female CM in India. She was the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh from 1963-67.
  • Syeda Anwara Taimur was elected as the CM of Assam in 1980. She was the first Muslim woman Chief Minister of India.
  • The longest-serving CM of India is Pawan Kumar Chambling of Sikkim, whereas the longest-serving incumbent CM of India is Naveen Patnayak of Odisha.
  • The father of Captain Amrinder Singh, the oldest Chief Minister of India, was the last Maharaja of Patiala.
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