MP Special: Soil types and their distribution.

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 13th, 2023

In this article, we are providing the facts relating to Soil Distribution in Madhya Pradesh. It Consists of the main Constituents of each soil and minerals that each type of soil lacks, their properties and further its distribution in various districts of Madhya Pradesh. Every Year MPPCS asks questions relating this so, in order to help the aspirants, we have created this master list of Soil Distribution in Madhya Pradesh such that it will be one point source of reading for the aspirants. This is crucial for all upcoming MPPCS and other state-related preliminary examinations.

  Soils of Madhya Pradesh

Five major types of soil are found in all over State, which are the following –

  1. Black soil, 2. Red and Yellow soil, 3. Alluvial soil, 4. Mixed soil, 5. Kachari soil

1) Black soil (Regur Soils/Black cotton soil)

  • It mainly consists iron and lime. Black soil of M.P. has been formed by deposition and subsequent weathering of of basalt of Deccan trap.
  • It is of basic nature. It is most suitable for cotton. Good for wheat and soybean.
  • Black color is mainly due to presence of titaniferous magnetite compounds of iron, aluminum and accumulated humus.
  • Black soil covers maximum area (47%) of Madhya Pradesh. And the water holding capacity in black soil is the highest, due to which the moisture persists for a long time.
  • In international level soil classification, it is called chernorgem.
  • It is found in Malwa plateau, Narmada-Sone valley and Satpura-Maikal range.

2) Red-yellow soil

  • It is found in the entire eastern part of the state that is Baghelkhand. Main districts include Mandla, Balaghat and Shahdol, Anooppur, Sidhi, Umaria, Singrauli etc.
  • This soil is 37 percentage of the total soil of M.P.
  • This is made up of Gondwana rock group.·   In this soil, ferric oxide is found, due to which its color is red, when ferric oxide undergoes hydrolysis, its color becomes yellow. It contains large amount of lime and it is of basic nature, which is suitable for cultivation of Rice.

3) Alluvial Soil

  • It is the most fertile soil.
  • It is formed due to eroded and deposited particles brought by rivers.
  • It is found of the area of ​​Central India’s region which includes Bhind, Morena, Sheopur, Gwalior and Shivpuri districts.·         Its nature is neutral.
  • It is most suitable for sugarcane.
  • It is of two types: Khadar and Bangar.
  • The soil spreads over 3 million acres of land in the state, which is approximately 3 percent of the total soil of state.

4) Mixed soil

  • It consists of red, yellow, black soil’s mixture in which excessive of calcium carbonate is found.
  • It is found in Bundelkhand area and Cereal grain crops are mainly produced.
  • It mainly suitable for the cultivation of the pulses, jowar, millet and fodder.

5) Kachari soil

  • This soil has been formed by Chambal and associated tributaries, within their catchment area.
  • Its expanses in Bhind, Morena, Sheopur, Gwalior

Crops mainly cultivated here are: wheat, sugarcane, cotton etc.

Its nature is neutral.

Soil Erosion (Apardan): Water and air erode the soil.

  • Catchment area of Chambal and associated rivers suffer from rill and gully erosion, which have widened over the period time.
  • In State, Soil erosion is the biggest problem for agricultural land.
  • Most of the soil erosion happens because of Chambal River.
  • From soil erosion by the river Chambal ‘Gully’ is formed.
  • Soil erosion is called “Creeping death”.
  • Deep cutting of a soil by a sharp stream is called “Gully erosion”.

Seasons of Madhya Pradesh

There are three seasons in the state- Summer, Rainy and Winter.

  1. Summer Season- From March to June,
  2. Rainy Season- From June to October,
  3. Winter Season- From October to March.

Summer Season

  • In M.P. summer season starts from March and last till June.
  • Temperature during May-June is between 30-450C in the state.
  • After March temperature continuously rises in the summer and in May-June, temperature of whole of the state goes above 300
  • Temperature of Gwalior, Morena and Datiya districts goes highest upto 470

Rainy Season

  • In M.P. rainy season prevails from June to October. It starts raining from mid of June.
  • Average rainfall in the state is 112 cm. Out of which highest is in eastern part which is 140-165 cm It respectively lowers down for western and north-western regions.
  • In western area rainfall is 50 cm and It is 62 cm in north west area.

Winter Season

  • Winter season in state prevails from November to February.
  • Temperature is the middle region of state is lowest in December and January.
  • Temperature of north western region of state in the winter remains 150-180 Temperature rises is the southern part. Generally, here’s temperature remains 180-210C.
  • Sometimes during winter season moderate cyclonic rainfall occurs.

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