The Most Stable Orbital among the following are

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 25th, 2023

  1. p2 and p3
  2. p4 and d4
  3. p3 and d5
  4. d5 and d7

The most stable orbital among the following are p3 and d5. An orbital is the region with the highest likelihood of containing electrons.


  • We are aware that matter has two natures, a wave and a particle, as stated by de Broglie.
  • This dual nature is likewise true of the electrons in an atom. They have a significant wave character because of their small size and light bulk.
  • The electron behaves like a wave, as described by its orbital.
  • The likelihood of discovering an electron is determined by the orbitals, which are mathematical functions.
  • In these orbitals, the likelihood of finding an electron is greatest.
  • We can calculate the probability density of electrons by squareing the wave functions.
  • Two components make up the wave functions:
    • Radial – giving us the spread or size of the orbitals
    • Angular- giving us the orientation of the orbitals in space.
  • We determine the appearance, size, and direction of the orbitals by plotting the wave functions in a three-dimensional coordinate system.

Orbitals that are partially and fully filled are the most stable.

The stability of half-filled and full-filled orbitals has the following causes:

Exchange energy:

  • Since the energies of all the orbitals in a given subshell are the identical, electrons that are present in various orbitals of the same subshell can move about.
  • The energy released as a result of such an electron exchange is referred to as exchange energy.
  • The orbital is more stable the more the exchange energy is present.
  • Exchange energies are greatest for orbitals that are fully and partially filled.


  • Stability results from symmetry.
  • Because electrons are evenly distributed in their orbitals in a fully or partially filled subshell, this state is the most stable.
  • The structure becomes more stable if shifting of electrons leads to the symmetrical distribution of electrons in a subshell.
  • p3 and d5 both have the highest degree of symmetry and are half-filled electrical configurations.


The Most Stable Orbital among the following are 1. p2 and p3 2. p4 and d4 3. p3 and d5 4. d5 and d7

p3 and d5 are the most stable orbital among the following. The region with more likelihood of having electrons is the orbital

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