Civil Engineering Questions and Answers

By Aina Parasher|Updated : July 12th, 2022

Civil engineering questions are provided here for candidates who are actively preparing for the GATE Civil exam 2023. Civil engineering questions can provide a quick overview of the types of questions to be expected in the exam.

Topics will be better understood by using objective-based MCQ questions and answers. 5 specially picked questions are mentioned here based on the recent GATE Civil exam pattern. Attempt and get the detailed answer to each question mentioned in this article.

Table of Content

Civil Engineering Question 1

 In a mortar, the binding material is-

  1. Cement
  2. Sand
  3. Surkhi
  4. Cinder

Answer: A. Cement


Cement, sand, aggregate, and water are the ingredients of mortar which can be present in a variety of ratios. In all those aggregates, the minimum setting time for cement is 30 minutes. Therefore, cement serves as the binding component in mortar.

Mortar: It refers to a paste made by adding the necessary amount of water to a blend of binding material, such as cement or lime, and fine aggregate, such as sand.

  • The binding substance known as the matrix and fine aggregate as an adulterant are the two aforesaid components of mortar.
  • The matrix holds the adulterant particles together, hence the quantity, quality, and strength of the mortar will largely depend on these factors.
  • The two parts of mortar work together to give the mass the ability to tightly bind the bricks or stones.

Civil Engineering Question 2

Lacquer paints-

  1. Are generally applied on structural steel
  2. Are less durable as compared to enamel paints
  3. Consist of resin and nitro-cellulose
  4. All of the above

Answer: D. All of the above


In order to prevent corrosion, lacquer paint is typically used on steel or casting equipment and it is more durable than enamel paint. This paint is used in the automotive industry for engine casing. To protect and shine up wood or metal, lacquer is a liquid that is applied on the surface. When applied to wood or metal, it is a liquid that resembles varnish and dries quickly to form a lustrous covering.

Nitrocellulose, plasticizers, and pigments are all dissolved in a mixture of volatile solvents to create lacquer, a type of product with a solvent base. Additionally, shellac in alcohol is dissolved in lacquer to produce a synthetic coating and high gloss surface. The word "lacquer" comes from the Portuguese word "lac," which refers to a type of resin secreted by some insects.

Civil Engineering Question 3

Wrought iron contains carbon upto-

  1. 0.25 %
  2. 1.0 %
  3. 1.5 %
  4. 2.0 %

Answer: A. 0.25%


Wrought iron is a very pure form of iron with an iron concentration of around 99.5 percent. It typically has a slag content of 1%–2% and less than 0.1 percent carbon.

  • It is made by remelting pig iron, and silicon, sulphur, or phosphorus may be present in trace amounts.
  • It is ductile, robust, malleable, and easily forged or welded.
  • However, it cannot withstand a rapid shock. This iron can be used to make chains, crane hooks, railway couplings, and other parts.

Pig iron: An intermediate product of the iron industry is called pig iron. Pig iron is exceedingly brittle and not used directly as a material, with a normal carbon percentage of 3.8 – 4.7%. This high carbon content, combined with silica and other dross components, also makes it very brittle.

Cast iron is a brittle, hard alloy containing iron, carbon, and silicon. Cl may include 1.7% to 3%  of carbon, and that carbon may be in the form of free carbon or iron carbide, Fe3C. Cast iron comes in a variety of forms, such as (a) grey cast iron, (b) white cast iron, (c) malleable cast iron, etc.

Steel is essentially an alloy of iron and carbon, with a carbon percentage that can be as low as 1.7%. To provide hardness and strength, carbon is added in the form of iron carbide. There are two primary types of steel: alloy steel and plain carbon steel.

Thus, contrary to cast iron, wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon content (less than 0.08 percent).

Civil Engineering Question 4

Pick up the polymineralic rock from the following:

  1. Quartz sand
  2. Pure gypsum
  3. Magnesite
  4. Granite

Answer: D. Granite


Polymineralic refers to the presence of more than one mineral. Minerals including feldspar, quartz, mica, and amphibole make up the majority of these rocks.

Composition of granite:

SiO2 72.04% (silica)

Al2O3 14.42% (alumina)

K2O4  4.12%

Na2O3 3.69%

CaO 1.82%

FeO 1.68%

Fe2O3 1.22%

MgO 0.71%

TiO2 0.30%

P2O5 0.12%

MnO 0.05%

Civil Engineering Question 5

Pick up the correct statement from the following:

  1. For thin structures subjected to wetting and drying, the water-cement ratio should be 0.45.
  2. For mass concrete structures subjected to wetting and drying, the water ratio should be 0.55.
  3. For thin structures which remain continuously underwater, the water-cement ratio by weight should be 0.55.
  4. All of the above.

Answer: D. All of the above



Plain Concrete

Reinforced Concrete


Minimum cement content kg/m3

Maximum free water-cement ratio

Minimum grade of concrete

Minimum cement content kg/m3

Maximum free water-cement ratio

Minimum grade of concrete






















Very severe














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