Answer: 4. Both 2 and 3
A foundation rests on both subgrade and foundation soil.
The foundation is a ground-connected structural element that receives and distributes the load from the piers and abutments to the foundation soil. Different types of foundations are utilized in building depending on the foundation depth and project requirements.
Hence, we can say that the foundation rests on foundation soil which can also be referred to as the subgrade. Foundation soil and subgrade carry the same meaning.
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