What is the Shape of the Earth?

By K Balaji|Updated : November 12th, 2022

The shape of the earth is called Geoid.

Early Theories of Origin of Earth

Below is a discussion of the main early hypotheses of how the earth came to be.

  • Immanuel Kant created the nebular hypothesis, which Pierre Laplace modified in 1796. This theory states that the planets were created from a material cloud connected with a young, slowly spinning sun.
  • In 1900, Chamberlain and Moulton theorised that as a wandering star neared the sun, material that had been detached from the solar surface formed into a cigar-shaped extension. As it continued to orbit the sun, the scattered material gradually gathered into planets.
  • According to the binary hypotheses, the sun coexists with a companion.
  • Otto Schmidt (in Russia) and Carl Weizascar revised the Nebular Hypothesis in 1950. (in Germany). They claimed that a solar nebula primarily made of hydrogen and helium, along with some dust, encircled the sun. A disk-shaped cloud was created by the friction and collision of particles, and planets were created by the process of accretion.

Evolution of Earth

A thin layer of hydrogen and helium made up the earth's atmosphere, which was arid, stony, and extremely hot.

  1. Lithosphere - As the earth's density increased, its internal temperature rose and the components began to segregate based on their densities. Iron and other heavier components moved into the centre of the mixture, while lighter elements moved toward the surface. The earth's crust was built over time as it cooled, solidified, and condensed into a smaller size (the outer layer of the earth).
  2. The crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core are the distinct layers of the planet, starting from the surface. Density rises from the crust to the centre.
  3. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars were among the terrestrial planets that experienced significant gas and dust outgassing due to the solar wind, which was strongest closer to the sun. The evolution of the current atmosphere was sparked when gases and water vapour from the earth's interior began to escape during the cooling process. Water vapour, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, ammonia, and minor amounts of free oxygen made up the majority of the early atmosphere. "Degassing" is the process of releasing gases from the earth's interior.
  4. Water vapour and other gases were introduced to the atmosphere by the periodic volcanic eruptions. Water vapours condensed and brought rain as the ground cooled. As the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was dissolved in the raindrops, the temperature was further decreased, causing additional condensation and rain. Oceans were created when rainwater gathered in depressions. For a very long time, only the oceans contained life. Through the process of photosynthesis, oxygen accumulated in the oceans, and some 2,000 million years ago, it started to fill the atmosphere.


What is the Shape of the Earth?

Earth is Geoid in shape. The crust, mantle, and core are the three separate layers that make up the earth's interior. The earth's crust is its outermost layer, while its core, which is located at a depth of 2900 kilometres, is its innermost layer.

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