What is a Cloze Test?
Cloze Test questions are somewhat similar to the usual 'fill in the blanks questions. In a Cloze test, multiple blanks are given within the passage so it becomes important to understand the entire context of the passage to fill the blanks appropriately, while in the fill in the blanks questions, the response is purely based on the given sentence only.
Types of Cloze Test Questions
Usually, a Cloze test is asked as a set of 5-10 questions. It has two variations:
1. Old Pattern:
A passage, with 5-10 blanks, is given. You are required to choose a word for each blank from the five options given in the question.
2. New Pattern:
I. Along with each blank in the passage, a word is given in brackets. You need to find that if the given word needs to be replaced or not with the given options. If it can be replaced, choose the suitable replacement as your option, otherwise select "none of these/no change required". This simply means that the word given in brackets acts as the fifth option. As per the directions of this specific question, if the given word can fit in the blank, the answer should be marked as ‘no change/ correction required’.
II. Apart from this, different types of New pattern questions have also been introduced such as the one containing a combination of error spotting and Cloze test, another being a combination of phrase replacement and Cloze test. We have shared a new pattern Cloze test question asked in the IBPS PO Main Exam at the end of this article.
Important Tips for Cloze Test
Tackling a Cloze Test with wits can turn it into a scoring topic for you. The wits required for approaching a Cloze Test have been discussed below.
Content always has a context and a tone in which it is written. It is important to pay attention to these factors to be able to judge the correct option. Let’s discuss each of these factors.
In the banking examinations, the passage or the paragraph is mostly based on three themes i.e. financial, environmental, and technological. Financial paragraphs can be based on contemporary trends in the economy, tax reforms, GST, etc. The environmental paragraphs can be related to global warming, seasonal changes, any recent calamity, etc. The technological paragraphs can be based on new inventions, the importance of technology in daily life, etc. It is important that one has an idea about these themes to be able to judge the kind of words that can fit in these contexts.
The three basic tones observed in the paragraphs chosen for the Cloze Tests are critical, analytical, and descriptive. A critical tone is used by the author to express adverse or disapproving comments or judgments. An analytical tone is used by the author to present an analysis of an issue, attempts to discuss the pros and cons or compare two or more things, and finally presents expresses which one is better than the other. A descriptive tone is said to be adopted by the author when he/she gives details about a topic and provides informative content on a topic, say pros and cons, statistics, etc.
Approach to Solve Cloze Test Questions
You must keep in mind the five key approaches given below while solving any Cloze Test:
- Read the passage: Go through the passage once and highlight the keywords to get an idea of the topic.
- Analyse the theme of the passage: Once you highlight the keywords, it becomes easier to understand the theme of the paragraph.
- Be mindful of the supporting/contradicting connectors: Connectors play a key role in choosing the correct word. Supporting connectors indicate that the context of the two statements or clauses is similar, it helps you to select a word that brings out the desired meaning. Contradicting connectors show that the context of the two statements or clauses is of opposite or contrasting nature and the word chosen as the answer should correspond with the same.
Supporting connectors: and, like, likewise, similarly
Contradicting connectors: but, however, unlike, although, though
- Eliminate Options: Once you have analyzed the context of the entire paragraph and the connectors of the specific question, eliminate the options which do not abide by them.
- Choose the correct contextual meaning: A word may have multiple meanings; hence it is important to understand the contextual usage of the word.
E.g.: Let’s take the word ‘cell’. The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life. The cell is the basic unit of a battery. The cell is used to refer to cell phones. The cell is also used to refer to a prison. A container is also called a cell.
If you go step by step, keeping in mind these five key approaches you will surely be able to solve the Cloze Test quickly and accurately. Try and solve the new pattern Cloze Test using these five approaches. Scroll down for answers and solutions.
Examples of Cloze Test
I) Directions: In the passage given below words are given in bold, each followed by a number given in the brackets. Every word in bold has five alternatives. Find the word which best suits the place. If the given word suits the blank, mark 'no correction/change required' as the answer.
It took the Delhi High Court to set right last week a largely inexplicable instance of official gender equality(Q1): it ruled that the Indian Navy must grant permanent commission to women as well, as the Army and the Air Force had to do following a 2010 order by a different bench of the same court. somehow(Q2) now, women could qualify only for the Navy’s Short Service Commission with tenure of up to 14 years; this made them ineligible for pension and often unable to find other work they were qualified for, virtually midway through their working lives. Following the latest ruling, women who qualify(Q3) for the permanent commission will be able to work until the age of 54, as their male counterparts do. The 19 women who filed plea(Q4) before the court argued that they had received the same training as their male counterparts and worked for a comparable number of years in different departments, but could go no further for the only reason that they were women. The High Court rightly ruled that it could not support any provision that would restrain the professional increment(Q5) of women. Grant of the permanent commission would allow women to rise in rank along with the men, and gain pay parity.
1. Choose the correct answer from the given options to fill the blanks which are numbered.
E. No change required
2. Choose the correct answer from the given options to fill the blanks which are numbered.
B. Up to
E. No change required
3. Choose the correct answer from the given options to fill the blanks which are numbered.
E. No change required
4. Choose the correct answer from the given options to fill the blanks which are numbered.
E. No change required
5. Choose the correct answer from the given options to fill the blanks which are numbered.
E. No change required
Answer & Solution of Above Question
All the options appear to fit in but only after reading the following statement can the correct answer be predicted. Since it talks of granting permission to women for the Indian Navy, the word discrimination fits well.
The answer can also be inferred from the clue ‘set right last week’. This helps us understand that something was out of order which the government had to make right, hence the context is negative.
All the given options fit with the following word 'now'. The correct answer can only be chosen after reading the entire sentence. Among the given options, 'Until' fits the sentence contextually as well as grammatically.
'Qualify', 'prepare' and 'aspire' seem to be apt. Prepare means to be ready, aspire means to aim/hope while qualify means to achieve something. Here, it refers to the achievement of a position in the permanent commission.
This is a tricky question. All the responses seem to be suitable. 'Case' refers to a matter brought before a court. 'Complaint' is a statement of disagreement. 'Plea' is a begging request. 'Petition' is an application for appeal. 'Request' also means to appeal. 'Petition' is a contextually more suitable response and includes the meaning of case, complaint as well as the plea. Between, request and petition, 'petition' is a more suitable word related to court.
5. Ans. A
Advancement fits the sentence most appropriately. The sentence talks about women achieving status equal to men, hence advancement is the most suitable response.
II) Direction: Given below is a passage divided into VI segments. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.
The UK is the world’s fifth-largest economy, it contains many areas of immense wealth, its capital is a leading centre of global finance, its entrepreneurs are innovative and agile, and despite the current political turmoil, it has a system of government that rightly remains the envy of much of the world. (I) It thus seems patently unjust and __(A)__ to British values that so many people are living in poverty. (II) This is obvious (1) to anyone who opens their eyes to see the deep (2) growth in food banks and the queues waiting outside them, the people sleeping rough in the streets, the growth of homelessness, the sense of immense (3) despair that leads even the Government to appoint a Minister for suicide prevention (4) and civil society to report on levels of loneliness and isolation. (III) And local __(B)__, especially in England, which performs vital roles in providing a real social safety net have been gutted by a series of government policies. (IV) Libraries have closed in record numbers, community and youth centres have been shrunk and are underfunded, public spaces and buildings including parks and recreation centres have been sold off. (V) While the labor and housing markets provide the crucial __(C)__, the focus of this report is on the contribution made by social security and related policies. (VI)
1. The first sentence (I) of the passage has been divided into four parts in the given options. There may or may not be an error in one of the parts. Choose the part which has an error in it as your answer. If there is no error, then choose option (E), “No error” as your answer.
A. The UK is the world’s fifth-largest economy, it contains
B. any areas of immense wealth, its capital is a leading centre of global finance,
C. its entrepreneurs are innovative and agile, and
D. despite the current political turmoil, it has a system of government that rightly remains the envy of much of the world
2. Which of the following word given in the options should fill the blank marked as (A) in the second segment (II) of the passage, to make it grammatically and contextually meaningful? Note that the word should also fill both the blanks of the following two sentences to make them contextually meaningful.
(i) _________ to the popular myth, the majority of accidents are not caused by speeding or drunkenness.
(ii) The villagers expressed regret that their habitations lacked road connectivity and other basic amenities ________ to the government’s tall claims.
3. The third segment (III) in the given passage has four words given in bold. Of these, the positions of the two words may be incorrect and need to be exchanged to make the sentence correct. Find the two words which need to be exchanged.
4. With respect to the context of the passage, which of the following can be inferred from the italicized sentence mentioned in the fifth segment (V) of the passage?
A. The closure of the various institutions of society will gradually have an adverse effect on the physical health of growing children.
B. Public welfare institutions have been shut down, thus causing a setback to the social health of the citizens.
C. In order to revive these institutions in the future, the government will have to invest a lot of capital and promote schemes to encourage people to social participation.
D. The closure of the institutions indicates that Britain is undergoing an economic crisis.
E. None of these
5. Which of the following word given in the options should fill the blank marked as (C) in the sixth segment (VI) of the passage, to make it grammatically and contextually meaningful. Note that the word should also fill both the blanks of the following two sentences to make them contextually meaningful.
(i) Settled into a ________ of wooded hills, was the little log cabin.
(ii) The conference begins this week against a _______ of unmitigated gloom.
E. Both A and B
Answers and Solution
1. Answer: C
The error lies in the third part of the sentence. “Entrepreneurs” is a noun and signifies a group of people. People can be “innovative” and not “innovation”. Thus, option C is the correct answer.
2. Answer: B
In the given question, we need to find a word that fits into all three blanks. In the given passage, the sentence under concern is followed by one which appreciates the economy of the UK. From the second sentence, it can be gathered that the situation of poverty is considered unjust for a prosperous nation like the U.K. The word in the blank must signify that the condition is considered something with reference to British values. Certainly, poverty will be considered a blot on the legacy of the nation. Thus, “contrary”, which means “in contrast to” is the best-fit word for the blank. “Complying” and “complimentary” would convey a meaning opposite to what is required. The words given in the last two options will convey an appropriate sense.
“Contrary” fits in both the blanks of the given two sentences. In the first, it means that what is usually believed with reference to accidents does not actually hold true. In the second sentence, it means that opposed to the government’s promises, the habitations of the villagers lacked road connectivity and other basic amenities.
3. Answer: E
“Deep, as well as “immense”,” are adjectives. In the given sentence, it must be assured that these adjectives modify the correct noun. Though the term “immense despair” may sound right, the term “deep growth” is incorrect. Thus, the positions of the two adjectives must be altered to make the sentence correct. “Immense growth” and “deep despair” are correct terms. So, option E is the correct answer.
4. Answer: B
Note that we have to draw an inference from the concerned sentence while keeping the context of the passage in mind. The sentence preceding the concerned sentence states that local authorities in England, which perform vital roles in providing a real social safety net, have been removed by a series of government policies. This implies that the social fabric has been adversely affected by the removal of certain local authorities. The concerned sentence further states how institutions that are necessary for the social and recreational growth of an individual, have been shut down. This implies that the course of action will adversely affect the social health of the people. Thus, option B is the correct answer.
The statement mentioned in option A carries a very narrow sense and cannot be inferred from the sentence. Statement C is out of context as the passage puts forth the problem and does not discuss how the institutions can be revived. Statement D is also not an appropriate inference as the author does not intertwine the problem with an economic crisis, but sees it as a failure of the government.
5. Answer: A
Backdrop- the setting or background for a scene, event, or situation; lies behind or beyond; serve as a background to
Precursor- a person or thing that comes before another of the same kind, the predecessor
Profusion- an abundance or large quantity of something
Let us look at the first sentence given above. It indicates that the hills acted as a part of the surrounding where the little log cabin was situated. So, “background” can fit here the best. “Surrounding” is quite inappropriate here. The second sentence implies that the “unmitigated gloom” acts as the pretext, in reference to which the conference begins. A similar meaning is conveyed by segment VI of the passage. It implies that though the labor and housing markets provide a background to the issue, the focus of the report is on the contribution made by social security and related policies. Thus, option A is the correct answer.
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