Lok Sabha – Composition, Members, Elections, Speaker, Functions, Powers, and Constituencies of Lok Sabha

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

Lok Sabha, or the first chamber of Parliament, is the Lower house of the Indian Parliament. It is also called the popular chamber of the Indian Parliament, which enjoys Legislative, Executive, Financial, Judicial and Electoral powers. The composition of Lok Sabha is 550 elected members, including the Prime Minister of India and two members nominated by the Indian President.

These members, representatives of the state and Union territories, are elected for five years. The article below has all the details about the Lok Sabha, its composition, the election process, its speaker, and the Constituencies of the Lok Sabha. The aspirants preparing for the UPSC Exam can refer to the article, as Lok Sabha forms an important part of the UPSC Syllabus under the Political Science subject.

Lok Sabha

The Parliament of India is bicameral, i.e., it has two houses- Rajya Sabha (Upper house) and Lok Sabha (lower house). Between these two houses, Lok Sabha is the Parliament’s first chamber. Its members represent the people throughout the country that are directly elected based on Universal Adult Suffrage. Its members are called the Members of Parliament or MPs. These members are elected for a period of five years.

The first general elections of the Lok Sabha occurred between October 1951 to February 1952. After the elections, its first session was held on 17 April 1952.

Composition of Lok Sabha

The provision for the composition of Lok Sabha is held in Article 81 of the Indian Constitution. According to Article 81 of the Constitution of India, the total composition of the Lok Sabha should not exceed 552. Out of these 552 members, 20 members are the Union Territories representatives, and 530 members are the State representatives.

What is the 104th Constitutional Amendment Act regarding Anglo Indian Community?

Currently, there are 542 members of the Lok Sabha. Of these, 2 are nominated from Anglo-Indian Community by the President of India. 20 represents UT, while 520 represents the States. Here is a table showing the Composition of the Lok Sabha-



Maximum Strength – 552

State representatives- 530

UT representatives- 20

Anglo-Indian Community members- 2

Current Strength – 542

State representatives- 520

UT representatives- 20

Anglo-Indian Community members- 2

Elections of Lok Sabha

Lok Sabha members are elected from the Union territories and States. The members of the Lok Sabha are appointed by general elections that are held every five years. In case of an emergency, this tenure can be extended to one year. Also, the President has the right to dissolve the Lok Sabha at anytime. The Universal Adult franchise is appointed by the Indian Consitution on an election basis.

  • Representation of Nominated Members in Lok Sabha: Two members of Lok Sabha are appointed by President from the Anglo-Indian Community. The 95th Amendment Act 2009 extends the provision for Anglo-Indian nomination. However, in the 104th Amendment, the Anglo-Indian Community reservation ceased to exist. Presently, 131 seats are reserved for STs and SCs. Of these 131 seats, 47 are reserved for STs and 84 for SCs.
  • Representation of Union Territories in Lok Sabha: The Direct Election is used as the election principle. The Parliament has the right to select the members of Lok Sabha as the representatives of Union Territories according to its need.
  • Representation of States in Lok Sabha: Universal Adult Franchise (Article 326) is the election principle for selecting representatives from States. Every Indian citizen above the age of 18 has the right to vote. The members of the Lok Sabha are elected directly by the territorial constituencies.

In the Lok Sabha’s first election, out of 489 seats, Congress won 364 seats. In the recent elections of 2019, BJP won 303 seats out of 552 seats.

Also Check:

Who is Lok Sabha Speaker?

Lok Sabha Speaker is elected among the members of the Lok Sabha. The Lok Sabha Speaker chairs the Lower house. In his absence, no proceedings can take place in the house. First speaker of the Lok Sabha was Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar. He was in the chair from 1952 to 1956 and died in the office. After his death, Ananthasayanam Ayyanagar became the Lok Sabha Speaker and remained in the chair till 1957. The current Lok Sabha Speaker is Om Birla.

Functions and Powers of Lok Sabha

The Lok Sabha enjoys Legislative, Executive, Financial, Judicial and Electoral powers. These are explained below-

  • Legislative Powers: A bill has to pass through both houses of the Parliament to become an act. Firstly, a bill is passed in the Lok Sabha before its introduction in the Rajya Sabha. If Rajya Sabha rejects a bill, it is resent to the Lok Sabha. After reconsideration, if Rajya Sabha is still not satisfied with the changes, then the bill enters into a deadlock. In a scenario where deadlock remains unresolved for a span of 6 months, then as per the provisions of Article 108 of the Indian Constitution, the Indian President has the right to Summon a joint sitting of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
  • Executive Powers: According to Article 73 (3) of the Indian Constitution, the Council of Ministers is collectively responsible before the Lok Sabha. The Prime Minister is selected from the political party that wins the majority in the Lok Sabha. The Lok Sabha can remove the ministry by passing a no-confidence motion.
  • Financial Power: The Lok Sabha enjoys various financial powers. According to Article 109, the money bill can be introduced in the Lok Sabha only. The Lok Sabha Speaker has the power to make the decision on a money bill. With Lok Sahba’s consent, the government’s fiscal policies cannot be implemented.
  • Judicial Powers: According to Article 61 of the Indian Constitution, impeachment proceedings can be taken up in the Rajya Sabha or Lok Sabha against the Indian President. It also has the power to investigate the Indian Vice-President for the charges prepared by the Rajya Sabha. Under Article 124 (4) of the Indian Constitution, both houses of the Parliament can together pass the order to remove any Supreme Court judge or the High Court judge.
  • Electoral Functions: The Lok Sabha members can take part in President’s election. According to Article 66 of the Constitution of India, the members of both houses can collectively elect an Indian Vice-President.

You can also refer to the Powers of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha to have a clear understanding of the powers enjoyed by both houses of Parliament.

Constituencies of Lok Sabha

In India, there are 543 constituencies that take part in the election of the Lok Saha. However, there are certain doubts regarding the constituencies of Lok Sabha. Below is the table showing certain facts about the Constituencies of Lok Sabha-

Smallest constituency (electors-wise)

Lakshadweep (47,972)

Largest constituency (electors-wise)

Malkajgiri (29,53,915)

Smallest constituency (area-wise)

Chandni Chowk (10.59

Largest constituency (area-wise)

Ladakh (1,73,266.37

Lok Sabha UPSC

The Lok Sabha is the lower house of the Parliament that has Legislative, Executive, Financial, Judicial and Electoral powers. The Lok Sabha UPSC holds an important role with respect to the UPSC Syllabus. Thus, candidates need to learn about the topic thoroughly. The aspirants can go through the Indian Polity Notes to have a better understanding of the other topics as well. You can also check the UPSC Study Material. Also, refer to UPSC Previous Year Question Papers.

Lok Sabha UPSC Questions

Some of the Lok Sabha UPSC Questions raised in the UPSC Prelims and UPSC Mains Exam are given below-

Question: Which of the following is/are the exclusive power(s) of Lok Sabha?

  1. To ratify the declaration of Emergency.
  2. To pass a motion of no-confidence against the Council of Ministers.
  3. To impeach the President of India.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 2 only

(c) 1 and 3

(d) 3 only

Answer: Option b

Question: Consider the following statements:

  1. The Constitution of India classifies the ministers into four ranks viz. Cabinet Minister, Minister of State with Independent Charge, Minister of State and Deputy Minister.
  2. The total number of ministers in the Union Government, including the Prime Minister, shall not exceed 15 per cent of the total number of members in the Lok Sabha.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: Option b

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