Answer writing challenge : Model Answer !

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 13th, 2023

The Indian political system is passing through a lot of changes in its party system. Evaluate the contradictions embedded in this transition.

  • From one-party dominance of the Congress to the 1967’s watershed era when the Congress first lost an election (Kerala assembly), from Indira’s comeback to the era of identity politics (BSP and RJD) and coalition government, the Indian party system has undergone a myriad of changes.
  • 1991 onwards, it was all about party coalitions to form a government at the centre. The electorates were playing the card of region and identity and hence the votes got divided.
  • This was also seen as one of the ways in which the aspirations of even the marginalised and even those who haven’t been mainstreamed yet, got a voice.
  • However, the politics of class and religion and caste also brought in divisive tendencies along with the demand for separate states.
  • From 2004 onwards, it was widely being believed that India has become a federation in the truest sense of the term with no single party being able to muster a majority in the parliament, and the dependence of the national parties on the regional.
  • 2014 elections brought the much-needed change that the political system was looking far. An alternative to the coalition politics which was marred by its weaknesses (instability, policy discontinuation, vote bank politics in the garb of identity politics etc)
  • The 2014 Lok Sabha elections were perceived as signalling the advent of one-party dominance in India after 1977. The congress suffered its worst ever defeat.
  • The present assembly election has proved otherwise. India’s diffused political environment and the role of the regional parties was undermined after 2014.
  • The cult of ‘post truth’ also took a backseat during this assembly election and showed that communication is important in a democracy.
  • As the cult of saffronisation was progressing, the 2018 assembly elections showed a rejection of the Hindutva politics and recognition of the vileness of such a politics
  • Nevertheless, BJP will now look to instigate a narrative that will make the opposition difficult of govern. This can usher in a possibility of pushing the BJP further right.
  • Retrospectively what we have found in the post 2014 elections, the fight in India is around two models; one is about changes in the political, social and economic life of India (more towards the capitalist order). The other model is on maintaining the status quo of the ever-going model of politics and governance in India (socialist – welfare model)
  • However, we can not undermine the role played by caste and religion in improving the opportunities to equality; equality of justice and economy both.
  • It is susceptible to contradictions and might become a pawn in the interplay between caste, community, development and democracy and keep oscillating between coalition and one-party dominance.


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