Centre of Curvature
- The Centre of curvature of a spherical mirror is defined as the centre of the sphere of which the spherical mirror is a part.
- The centre point of a spherical mirror is called a pole.
- The straight line passing through the pole of the mirror and the centre of curvature is called the Principal Axis.
- The principal focus of a spherical mirror is a point on that spherical mirror's principal axis where parallel light rays intersect (meet) or emerge to deviate after reflection.
Focal Length (f)
- The distance between the Focus and the pole is called the Focal Length.
- The focal length of any spherical mirror is half its radius. i.e. f= R/2
The radius of curvature (R)
- The distance between the centre of curvature and the pole is called the Radius of Curvature.
- The radius is twice the focal length. i.e R = 2f
Sign Convention for Spherical Mirrors
- All distances on a spherical mirror are measured from the pole.
- Objects are placed to the left of the mirror.
- All distances from the pole to the left are measured Negative.
- Since the object is always placed to the left, the distance to the object is always Positive.
- All distances to the left of the spherical mirror are measured Positive.
- The focal length is measured to the right of the concave mirror, so the focal length is measured Negative.
- The focal length is measured to the right of the convex mirror, so the focal length is measured Positive.
Convex Lens - Converging Action
Concave Lens - Diverging Action
Centre of curvature (C1, C2 )
- The centre of curvature of the two spheres of the lens is called the centre of curvatures. In most cases, both are at an equal distance from O.
- The straight line passing through both curves is called the principal axis.
- The centre point of the lens is called the optical centre.
- When the incident ray comes parallel to the principal axis and intersects at the point on the principal axis after refracting from the lens, the point is called the Principal focus.
Focal length (f)
- The distance between the optical centre and the focus is called the focal length.
Sign Convention for lens
- Any distance in the magnifying glass is measured from the centre of the lens.
- All distances to the left of the magnifying glass (-ve) are negative, while all distances to the right (+ ve) are considered positive.
- The object is always placed to the left of the magnifying glass, so the distance to the object is always calculated as Negative.
- The object is always kept flat, so the height of the object is measured positively.
- The focal length of a convex lens is positive, as it is measured on the right side.
- The focal length of the concave lens is negative, as it is measured on the left side.
- When a ray of light passes from one transparent medium to another opaque medium, it returns to the same medium. This property of light is called reflection.
- The angle of incidence (i) and the angle of reflection (r) are the same. i.e. i=r
- As light travels from one transparent medium to another, our direction changes. The natural phenomenon of changing this direction is called the refraction of light.
- The speed of light varies between different media, so the light beam changes its direction as the medium changes.
- Light is refracted twice through a glass chip.
- The first refraction occurs when light rays pass through a sparse medium to a solid medium.
- When a ray of light passes through a sparse medium to a solid medium, it tends to ‘Normal’.
- When a ray of light passes through a sparse medium to a solid medium, the angle of incidence is greater than the rate of refraction. In this case, the refractive index of the second medium is higher than the refractive index of the first medium.
- The higher the refractive index of the second medium, the more the light bends towards the column.
- The second refraction of the glass chip is on the lower part of the glass as the light beam passes through the solid through the sparse medium.
- When light travels through a solid to a sparse medium, it moves away from ‘Normal’
- In this case, the angle of refraction is greater than the angle of incidence.
- In this case, the refractive index of the first medium is higher than the refractive index of the second medium.
- The higher the value of the refractive index of the first medium, the farther the radiation goes from ‘Normal’.
- The rate of change in the direction of light rays varies as they pass through different mediums. They are related to the refractive index of the standard medium.
- Different media have different refractive indexes, so different media have different directions of light.
- Dispersion of light can be defined as the splitting of the light beam (white) into its seven constituent colours when it is passed through any transparent media.
- Decreasing order of wavelengths: R, O, Y, G, B, I, V
- Ascending order of frequency: R, O, Y, G, B, I, V
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