Poisson’s Ratio: Definition, Formula, Poisson’s Ratio of Steel
By BYJU'S Exam Prep
Updated on: September 25th, 2023
Poisson’s Ratio measures the strain ratio in the lateral direction to the linear direction. In this way, we can say that lateral direction strain is the direction along the diameter, and linear direction stain is the direction along the length. Poisson’s ratio defines the deformation in a lateral and linear direction in the form of a ratio. This is known as Poisson’s ratio.
Poisson’s ratio is the negative ratio of lateral strain to linear strain in some places because the material has properties for expansion and contraction. Still, when it shrinks, it shows a negative value. This ratio is very important in determining strain components by the applied load. We can design the structural member on their yield strength and apply a significant load.
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What is Poisson’s Ratio?
The negative ratio of transverse strain to lateral or axial strain is known as Poisson’s ratio. It is identified by the Greek letter “nu” and is named after Siméon Poisson.
The Poisson’s ratio is represented as mew (μ) or 1/m. In the same context, different materials have different Poisson ratios. The maximum value of Poisson’s ratio is 0.5, and the minimum value is 0. In exception, human tissue is (-1) Poisson’s ratio. There is no unit of Poisson’s Ratio. Different values of Poisson’s ratio are listed below –
Types of Material |
Poisson’s ratio |
Human Tissues |
-1 |
Cork |
0 |
Concrete |
0.10 – 0.20 |
Cast Iron |
0.20 – 0.30 |
Mild Steel |
0.25 – 0.33 |
Wrought iron |
0.30 |
Aluminium |
0.33 |
Brass |
0.34 |
Copper |
0.33 – 0.36 |
Rubber |
0.45 – 0.50 |
Titanium |
0.265 – 0.34 |
Clay |
0.30 – 0.45 |
Platinum |
0.39 |
Foam |
0.10 – 0.50 |
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Poisson’s Ratio Formula
Poisson’s ratio is formulated as a ratio of change in diameter to the original diameter or lateral changes to the linear changes as a change in length to the original length. These changes in dimension are known as a strain. So basically, Poisson’s ratio is the strain ratio in lateral to linear dimension.
Poisson’s Ratio = Lateral strain/Linear strain
Or
Poisson’s ratio (μ) = (Change in width, diameter, thickness/Original width, diameter, thickness)/(Change in length/Original length)
Or
Poisson’s ratio (μ) = (δd/d)/(δL/L)
Or
1/m = Lateral strain/Linear strain
Range of 1/m is 0 ≤ μ ≤ 0.5. Only in exceptional cases is this limit as the minimum value as -1.
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Poisson’s Ratio of Steel
The Poisson’s ratio of material changes as per the type of material. Soft materials like rubber, copper, and brass have a higher Poisson’s ratio, while hard materials like steel, wrought iron, and concrete have a low Poisson’s ratio. In comparison to all, we need steel as mild steel, structural steel, and HYSD steel bars. The Poisson’s ratio of steel is given below.
Steel Type |
Poisson’s ratio |
Mild steel |
0.303 |
High Carbon steel |
0.295 |
Structural steel |
0.3 |
HYSD steel |
0.28 |
Poisson Ratio for Perfectly Incompressible Elastic Body
An incompressible body is a body that has no volume change with the effect of the application of load. Such types of bodies have constant density concerning load variation. An elastic material is a material that follows Hooke’s law of elasticity.
The value of the Poisson’s ratio varies from zero to 0.5, but in some cases, it will also be negative (e.g., Poisson ratio of human tissue=-1). And for Incompressible elastic body value of Poisson’s ratio is 0.5