Bihar State Exam Agriculture, Transport & Industries in Bihar Study Material: [Download Notes PDF]

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 25th, 2023

Bihar State Exam Agriculture, Transport & Industries in Bihar Study Material: Bihar is one of the fastest-growing states in India. The economy of Bihar is projected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 13.4% during 2012-2017 i.e. the 12th Five-Year Plan. Bihar has witnessed strong growth in per capita net state domestic product (NSDP). Bihar is mainly agricultural products producing state.

Here, we are giving the complete study material of ‘Agriculture, Transport & Industries in Bihar’ that will ease the journey of aspirants to crack the competitive examinations like BPSC and other state-level examinations.

Agriculture in Bihar State

  • Bihar is primarily an agricultural state where farming is subsistent in nature.
  • Foodgrains are the main crops.
  • Gopalganj and Madhepura have the highest net sown area.
  • There are three cropping seasons in Bihar.
  • Kharif Crops
    • They are also called Bhadai and Aghani crops.
    • They are sown in May-June and harvested in September-October.
    • Important crops – Maize, Paddy and Jute.
  • Rabi Crops
    • They are sown in October-November and harvested in March-April.
    • Important crops – Wheat, Gram, Rapeseed and Mustard.
  • Zaid Crops
    • They are produced between Rabi and Kharif crop seasons.
    • Important crops – Muskmelon, Watermelon, Gourd etc.
  • RICE
    • Main cereal crop of Bihar
    • Two crops are grown – Aus (Summer Crop) and Aman (Winter Crop)
    • Maximum area – Madhubani, Aurangabad and Rohtas
    • Maximum production – Rohtas, Aurangabad and West Champaran
    • Maximum productivity – Arwal, Rohtas and Sheikhpura
    • The best suited is sandy soil having the capacity to retain moisture.
    • Ganga Diara and Bagmati plains are the most important.
    • Maximum area – Rohtas, East Champaran and Aurangabad
    • Maximum production – Rohtas, Kaimur and Siwan
    • Maximum productivity – Jahanabad, Patna and Gaya
    • Light clay soil is best for maize e.g. Bal Sundari soil
    • Maximum area – Khagaria
    • Maximum production – Katihar, Madhepura and Khagaria
    • Maximum productivity – Katihar
  • JUTE
    • Bihar ranks 2nd in jute production after West Bengal
    • It requires alluvial soil with a large amount of rainfall.
    • Major district for jute production – Kishanganj and Purnea
    • Arhar, gram, urad, masoor, moong and khesari are grown.
    • Maximum area – Patna, Aurangabad and Muzaffarpur
    • Maximum production – Patna, Aurangabad and Nalanda
    • Maximum productivity – Kaimur
  • Bihar is known for its Litchi and Mango production.
  • Litchi of Muzaffarpur is famous all over India.


  • The irrigation potential of Bihar is very high but utilization is very low.
  • Proper irrigation helps in raising agricultural production thus bettering the lives of people.
  • Bihar also receives a fair amount of rainfall.
  • There is a however uneven distribution of both irrigation facilities and rainfall across various districts.
  • The share of irrigation by Canals is 37% and Tubewells is 30% while wells and ponds account for 30%.
  • Almost 3/4th of the Canal irrigated area is in South Bihar.
    • Eastern Sone Canal taken out from Barun – irrigates Patna, Jahanabad, Aurangabad and Gaya
    • Western Sone Canal has been taken out from Tishri – irrigate Ara, Buxar and Rohtas
    • Two canals took out from Hanuman Nagar reservoir
    • Eastern Kosi Canal – irrigates Purnia, Madhepura and Saharsa.
    • Western Kosi Canal – irrigates Darbhanga district.
    • Two Canals took out from the dam at Valmiki Nagar
    • Saran Canal – irrigates Saran, Gopalganj and Siwan
    • Tirhut Canal – irrigates Muzaffarpur, Vaishali and East Champaran
    • It is taken out from Gandak River at Triveni.
    • It irrigates the West Champaran district.
    • It is taken out from Kamla River in Darbhanga.
    • It irrigates mainly the Madhubani district.

Transport in Bihar State


  • Roadways are the most common means of transport used by people.
  • Development of the people cannot be achieved without adequate roads.
  • In terms of road length per lakh population, it is just over 200 km compared to the national average of 358 km.
  • However, in terms of road density of 210 km per 100 sq. km, Bihar is much ahead of other states except Kerala and West Bengal
  • The total length of National Highways is 4595 km.
  • The longest NH in Bihar is NH-31 of which 393 km is in Bihar.
  • East-West Corridor
    • It connects Porbandar to Silchar.
    • It passes through 10 districts.
    • Kishanganj, Katihar, Purnia, Araria, Supaul, Madhepura, Darbhanga, Muzaffarpur, East Champaran and Gopalganj
    • It crosses the Gandak River in Bihar.
    • It consists of NH-27.
  • Golden Quadrilateral
    • It passes through 4 districts.
    • Kaimur, Rohtas, Aurangabad and Gaya.
    • It crosses the Sone River in Bihar.
    • It consists of NH-2 which connects Delhi to Kolkata.
  • Major NHS :
    • NH-19 – Chhapra to Patna
    • NH-57 – Muzaffarpur to Purnia
    • NH-82 – Gaya to Mokama
    • NH-85 – Chhapra to Gopalganj
    • NH-98 – Patna to Rajhara. AIIMS Patna is on this NH.
  • Major Road Bridges :
    • Mahatma Gandhi Setu on Ganga river in Patna
    • Vikramshila Setu on Ganga river in Bhagalpur
  • Major Rail-Road Bridges :
    • Rajendra Setu on Ganga river in Mokama
    • Nehru Setu on Sone river in Dehri-i-Koh
    • Abdul Bari Bridge on Sone river connecting Koilwar and Bhojpur
    • Ganga Rail-Road Bridge on Ganga river connecting Patna and Sonepur


  • Railways started developing quite early in Bihar by the East India Company in 1860-62.
  • Bihar has three railway lines
    • North-Eastern Railway – North Bihar
    • East Central Railway – South Bihar
    • North-East Frontier Railway ­- ­­­North-East Bihar
  • The headquarters of the East Central Railway is located in Hajipur in the Vaishali district of Bihar.


  • There are two international airports in Bihar.
    • Jay Prakash Narayan International Airport, Patna
    • Gaya International Airport – It was mainly developed for Buddhist tourism in Gaya.


  • Waterways are the cheapest means of transport.
  • It is environment friendly and fuel-efficient.
  • National Waterway-1 that connects Allahabad to Haldia passes through Bihar.
  • Bihar Steamer Service is available at Bararighat in Bhagalpur
  • Ara Canal is also used for navigation purposes.

INDUSTRIES in Bihar State

  • Most of the industries are agro-based.
  • The First Sugar manufacturing company was set up by the Dutch in 1840.
  • Bihar State Milk Cooperative Federation (CONFED)
    • It was established in 1983.
    • SUDHA brand is marketed by CONFED.
  • The tea industry in Bihar is mostly concentrated in the Kishanganj district.
  • Bhagalpur region has great potential for Silk Industry.
  • Jute Park is being set up at Maranga in the Purnia district.
  • The leather industry is concentrated in Muzaffarpur and Mokama. Due to only a few working industries, most of the raw materials find a way to Kolkata, Kanpur and Chennai.
  • Bihar Industrial Area Development Authority (BIADA)
    • It was constituted under the B I A D Act 1974 to promote industrialization in Bihar.
    • It has 4 regional offices in Patna, Darbhanga, Muzaffarpur and Bhagalpur.
  • Bharat Wagon and Engineering Company Limited
    • It is a PSU located in Mokama
    • It manufactures rail wagons.
  • Barauni Refinery
    • It is located in Begusarai.
    • It was established in 1964 with the help of the USSR.
    • It is owned by Indian Oil Corporation.
    • It receives oil from the Numaligarh oilfield in Assam.
  • Major Industrial locations in Bihar
    • Mokama – Leather, Rail Wagons
    • Digha – Leather, Beer
    • Bihta – Sugar
    • Patna – Cracker, Cotton Textile
    • Bhagalpur – Tussar Silk
    • Munger – Gun, Cigarette
    • Gaya – Sugar, Lac, Cotton Textile, Leather
    • Dumraon – Cotton Textile, Laltern
    • Bihar Sharif – Tobacco
    • Darbhanga – Paper
    • Samastipur – Paper mill, Sugar
    • Katihar – Jute, Matchstick
    • Dalmianagar – Cement
    • Hajipur – Plywood 

Agriculture, Transport & Industries in Bihar Study Material (English PDF)

Agriculture, Transport & Industries in Bihar Study Material (Hindi PDF)

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