What are the models of Organisational Behaviour?
Organisations are social systems. People who are responsible for managing them needs to understand how they function. Organisational Behaviour refers to the behaviour of people in the organisations because organisations themselves do not behave. OB covers three determinants of behaviour within organisations – Individuals, Groups and Structure.
Types of Models of Organisational Behaviour
Most common Models of Organisational Behaviour are:
- This model is based on the ‘power of the boss’.
- Organisations with an autocratic environment are Authority Oriented. It assumes that the employees are to be pushed, persuaded and directed to perform better. The management does the thinking, and employees obey the orders. This view of management has been developed by Douglas McGregor in his Theory X. The employees depend completely upon the boss in this model.
- The autocratic model has been successful in some situations where the workers are lazy and tend to work slowly. It is also suitable when work to be done is time-bound. Managers threaten the employees by reducing the wages if the work is not done on time.
- This model is not applicable in the present scenario as workers are educated and organised. There are also strict minimum wages laws in countries.
The Custodial Model:
- This model came into existence to overcome the shortcomings of the autocratic model.
- The insecurity and constant frustration felt by the workers under the autocratic model sometimes led to aggression towards the boss. This called for a new model that improved the employer-employee relationship. The custodial model was used by progressive managers.
- The custodial model emphasis on economic rewards and benefits. The employees under this model depend upon the organisation rather than their boss. The employees under this model are satisfied and happy. The main benefit of this model is that it brings satisfaction and security to the employees.
- The problem faced by this model is that it depends on material rewards only to motivate the employees. But the employees have their psychological needs also.
The Supportive Model:
- The supportive model has originated from the ‘Principles of Supportive Relationships’ by Rensis Likert.
- The supportive model mainly depends on leadership instead of power or money. This model provides a favourable organisational climate with the help of supportive leadership in which employees are helped to grow to their greatest capabilities in compliance with the organisational goals.
- This model assumes that the workers are not lazy. If properly motivated, the workers can be self-directed and creative to the organisation.
- Rather than simply giving the employees payments and benefits as in the case of the custodial model, the organisation should also focus on the psychological need of the employees as well under the supportive model.
- This model is an improvement of the above models as it helps in creating a friendly superior-subordinate relationship with a strong sense of confidence and trust.
The Collegial Model:
- The collegial model is an extension of supportive model. This model is based upon the partnership of employees and the management.
- In this model, the workers feel that they are the partners in the organisation. As a result, there exists a favourable climate in the organisation. The managers are not seen as bosses but as joint contributors. Both the managers and the workers accept and respect each other.
- The collegial model improves the team spirit in the organisation. The workers accept responsibilities because they find it their obligation to do so, not because they will be punished by the management. This develops a system of self-discipline in the organisation.
- In such an environment, the workers will have job satisfaction, job involvement and job commitment.
Some other models of organisational behaviour are:
- Normative Models: Normative models are mainly concerned with the determination of optimal actions. It seeks to find out what should be done to produce optimum results. Normative models are concerned mainly with what should be done or what should not be done by managers and employees.
- Empirical Models: While Normative models deal with what should be done, Empirical model deals with what the employees actually perform. Organisational behaviour according to this model, is concerned with what is actually taking place in the organisations and how do people actually behave.
- Ecological Models: Every business or organisation continuously interact with the environment. All the activities of the organisation are affected by the environment, as the environment supplies the inputs which are converted into outputs by the organisation. Ecological models are models which deal with the changes taking place in the environment and the complexities of the environment.
- Non-Ecological Models: This model is the opposite of the Ecological model. The non-ecological model assumes stability in the environment, and everything will remain the same in the environment. This model is not useful in the present scenario as the environment is constantly changing.
- Ideographic Models: Ideographic models are developed to deal with specific cases or unique situations. This model deals with situations like single nation, single organization, single group, individual, etc. It is a micro-level analysis of organizational behavior.
- Nomothetic Models: Nomothetic models are developed to deal with general situations. It is a macro-level analysis of organizational behavior. These models deal with situations like cross country, cross-organization, cross-group, cross individual analysis.
Since organizations are different from each other, we have to find the organizational behavior model that best suits that particular organization. The selection of a model by a manager depends on the vision, philosophy, organizational culture, etc. Environment factors also help in determining which model will be effective for each organization.
Best Books For UGC NET Commerce
Below are the best Books for UGC NET Commerce. Candidates can refer to these books for UGC NET Preparations.
|Topic Name||Relevant Book|
|Graduation Textbook Micro Economics by Dr. Deepshree|
Graduation level Textbook and Internet/ Wikipedia
Graduation level Textbook by I.M. Pandey
Post-Graduation level Textbook “Business Statistics” by Dr. J.K. Thakur
Graduation level Textbook by C.R. Kothari
UGC NET Commerce Preparation Tips
- First of all, the appearing candidate should have a thorough knowledge of the UGC NET Commerce Syllabus.
- After being aware of the syllabus, the next thing you need is the right study material for the preparations to begin. Candidates can refer to the below table for UGC NET Commerce Books.
- Another useful preparation tip is to solve UGC NET Previous Year Papers. Solve as much as you can as they will prepare you for the type of questions in the exam.
- It is also very important to keep giving UGC NET Mock test. These will prepare you for the actual exam environment and you can practice new questions through them.
|Best Books for UGC NET Commerce Unit-Wise||Read here|
|UGC NET Study Notes on Teaching Aptitude||Read here|
|Importance of UGC NET 2022 Exam Paper 1||Read Here|
|UGC NET Study Notes on Models of Strategic Planning||Read Here|
|UGC NET Study Notes on Techniques of Organisational Development||Read here|
Go Byju's Exam Prep.