Rajasthan Special: Ancient History of Rajasthan

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 13th, 2023

In this article we have described various historical ages and associated geographical sites in Rajasthan. Also read about various kingdoms of ancient India and their extent. This article is the first in the series of Rajasthan Special series. In the coming days we will cover more such topics starting from History of Rajasthan.


Stone Age and associated sites

A) Paleolithic age: –

a) Nagaur b) Didwana

B) Mesolithic Age: –

a) Bagor: –

  • On the bank of river Kothari in Bhilwada District.
  • Most ancient source of animal husbandry is found here.
  • Tools are excavated in large numbers.
  • Excavated by Virendranath Mishra.
  • Biggest Mesolithic Site in India

b) Tilwara

  • On the bank of river Luni in Barmer district.
  • Evidence of animal husbandry is found here.
  • Excavated by Virendranath Mishra.

C) Chalcolithic age

a) Ahar culture

  • Also known as Banas Culture.
  • 6 hearthstone are found from a single home which shows the evidence of joint families living under the same roof.
  • Black and Red Ware pottery were found here.

Other important sites were Gilund, Balathal, Pachamta, etc.

Indus Valley Civilization

Kalibangan: –

  • Located on the bank of river Ghaghhar in Hanumangarh District.
  • Discovered by Amlanand Ghosh in 1953.
  • Excavated by Brijvasilal in 1961.
  • Evidences of ploughed field are found.
  • Evidence of growing Barley and Mustard are found.
  • Cylindrical seal of Mesopotamia is found here.
  • Houses were made from Raw bricks (Kachhi Int).
  • Drainage system was not properly developed.
  • Evidences of Earthquake.

Sothi (Sothi Civilization)

  • It was a rural civilization.
  • Located in Ganganagar District.
  • Situated on the plain of Ghaghhar and Chautang River.
  • It is also called Kalibanga 1st.
  • Historian mentioned it as the origin place of Harappan civilization.

Mahajanapadas of Rajasthan


  • Capital: – Viratnagar
  • Present: – Alwar, Bharatpur and Jaipur

Shurasena (Brajmandala)

  • Capital: – Mathura
  • Present: – Alwar, Bharatpur, Dhaulpur and Karauli.


  • Capital: – Indraprastha (Delhi)
  • Present: – Delhi and northern Region of Rajasthan.

Some Other Janapada Of Rajasthan

Shivi Janapada

  • Capital: – Madhyamika (Present name Nagari)
  • Present region: – Chittorgarh And Udaipur district
  • Rajasthan’s first excavated site.
  • Excavated by D.R. Bhandarkar.

Arjunayana Janapada

  • Present Alwar and Bharatpur District.
  • They emerged as political power During Sunga Period.

Malav Janapad

  • Present Jaipur and Tonk district.
  • Capital: – Nagar (Tonk)
  • They are mentioned in Mahabhashya of Patanjali


  • Present Hanumangarh and Ganganagar district.
  • Kushana power was stopped by them.
  • They are mentioned in Ashtadhyayi and Ganapatha of Panini.

Shalvya: Present Alwar district.

Rajanya” Present Jodhpur and Bikaner region.

Mauryan Period

Bairat (Viratnagar)

  • It was capital of Matsya Mahajanapada.
  • It was a part of Mauryan Empire.
  • In 1837, Ashoka’s Rock Edict was discovered by Capt. Burj from Bijak-ki-Pahadi.
  • Evidence of the Buddhist stupa sites was found.
  • In 634 A.D Huang Tsang visited Bairat.
  • Sculptures, coins, pottery, seals and metal objects were found from excavation.
  • It was excavated by Daya Ram Sahni in 1936.
  • According to Maan Sarovar inscription of 713 A.D. Maan Maurya was the ruler of Bairat. This inscription also mentions the name of 4 rulers. Maheshwar, Bhoj, Bhim and Maan.

Post Mauryan Period

  • Greek ruler Minander attacked Rajasthan in 150 B.C.
  • 16 Greek coins were found from Bairat.
  • Coins were found from the Rang Mahal of Hanumangarh belonging to Kushan period.
  • The first Saka king in India was Maues who ruled in Gandhar and extended his power in northwest India.

Gupta Period

  • According to Prayag Prashashthi (Allahabad Inscription), Samundragupta defeated many republican kingdoms.
  • Samundra Gupta defeated Rudradaman II in 351 A.D. and captured southern Rajasthan.
  • Vikramaditya Defeated last Shaka ruler and whole Rajasthan came under Gupta dynasty.
  • Maximum gupta period coins are found from Bayana (Bharatpur) belonging to Kumar Gupta.
  • Baran(Rajasthan) inscription mention about Gupta.
  • Durga Temple (Kota) and Shiv Temple (Chachanura) are the best example of Gupta Architecture.

Post Gupta Period (Huns, Vardhans and Gurjars)

  • In 503 A.D, Toranmal of Hun Dynasty defeated Guptas and captured Rajasthan.
  • Mihirkula built Shiva temple in Badauli.
  • Later Mihikula was defeated by Narsingh Baladitya Gupta and Rajasthan was reoccupied by Guptas.
  • Capital of Gurjar-Pratihar was Bhinmal.
  • Chinese traveler Huang Tsang visited Bhinmal during his period.
  • Brahmagupta belongs to Bhinmal.
  • Gurajar pratihar stopped Arab invasion from North West.

Other Archeological Sites

  • Ganeshwar: Located on the bank of river Kantali in Sikar District.
  • Sunari: On the bank of river Kantali in Jhunjhuni district. Iron Age site.

Kurada: In Nagaur district. Called Town of Tools.

Iswaal: In Udaipur district. Industrial Town (Bcz of Iron Mine in Ancient time)

Gardara: In Bundi district. Rock paintings of ancient India are found.

Jodhpura: On the bank of river Sabi in Jaipur district.

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