Stone Age and associated sites
A) Paleolithic age: -
a) Nagaur b) Didwana
B) Mesolithic Age: -
a) Bagor: -
- On the bank of river Kothari in Bhilwada District.
- Most ancient source of animal husbandry is found here.
- Tools are excavated in large numbers.
- Excavated by Virendranath Mishra.
- Biggest Mesolithic Site in India
- On the bank of river Luni in Barmer district.
- Evidence of animal husbandry is found here.
- Excavated by Virendranath Mishra.
C) Chalcolithic age
a) Ahar culture
- Also known as Banas Culture.
- 6 hearthstone are found from a single home which shows the evidence of joint families living under the same roof.
- Black and Red Ware pottery were found here.
Other important sites were Gilund, Balathal, Pachamta, etc.
Indus Valley Civilization
- Located on the bank of river Ghaghhar in Hanumangarh District.
- Discovered by Amlanand Ghosh in 1953.
- Excavated by Brijvasilal in 1961.
- Evidences of ploughed field are found.
- Evidence of growing Barley and Mustard are found.
- Cylindrical seal of Mesopotamia is found here.
- Houses were made from Raw bricks (Kachhi Int).
- Drainage system was not properly developed.
- Evidences of Earthquake.
Sothi (Sothi Civilization)
- It was a rural civilization.
- Located in Ganganagar District.
- Situated on the plain of Ghaghhar and Chautang River.
- It is also called Kalibanga 1st.
- Historian mentioned it as the origin place of Harappan civilization.
Mahajanapadas of Rajasthan
- Capital: - Viratnagar
- Present: - Alwar, Bharatpur and Jaipur
- Capital: - Mathura
- Present: - Alwar, Bharatpur, Dhaulpur and Karauli.
- Capital: - Indraprastha (Delhi)
- Present: - Delhi and northern Region of Rajasthan.
Some Other Janapada Of Rajasthan
- Capital: - Madhyamika (Present name Nagari)
- Present region: - Chittorgarh And Udaipur district
- Rajasthan’s first excavated site.
- Excavated by D.R. Bhandarkar.
- Present Alwar and Bharatpur District.
- They emerged as political power During Sunga Period.
- Present Jaipur and Tonk district.
- Capital: - Nagar (Tonk)
- They are mentioned in Mahabhashya of Patanjali
- Present Hanumangarh and Ganganagar district.
- Kushana power was stopped by them.
- They are mentioned in Ashtadhyayi and Ganapatha of Panini.
Shalvya: Present Alwar district.
Rajanya” Present Jodhpur and Bikaner region.
- It was capital of Matsya Mahajanapada.
- It was a part of Mauryan Empire.
- In 1837, Ashoka’s Rock Edict was discovered by Capt. Burj from Bijak-ki-Pahadi.
- Evidence of the Buddhist stupa sites was found.
- In 634 A.D Huang Tsang visited Bairat.
- Sculptures, coins, pottery, seals and metal objects were found from excavation.
- It was excavated by Daya Ram Sahni in 1936.
- According to Maan Sarovar inscription of 713 A.D. Maan Maurya was the ruler of Bairat. This inscription also mentions the name of 4 rulers. Maheshwar, Bhoj, Bhim and Maan.
Post Mauryan Period
- Greek ruler Minander attacked Rajasthan in 150 B.C.
- 16 Greek coins were found from Bairat.
- Coins were found from the Rang Mahal of Hanumangarh belonging to Kushan period.
- The first Saka king in India was Maues who ruled in Gandhar and extended his power in northwest India.
- According to Prayag Prashashthi (Allahabad Inscription), Samundragupta defeated many republican kingdoms.
- Samundra Gupta defeated Rudradaman II in 351 A.D. and captured southern Rajasthan.
- Vikramaditya Defeated last Shaka ruler and whole Rajasthan came under Gupta dynasty.
- Maximum gupta period coins are found from Bayana (Bharatpur) belonging to Kumar Gupta.
- Baran(Rajasthan) inscription mention about Gupta.
- Durga Temple (Kota) and Shiv Temple (Chachanura) are the best example of Gupta Architecture.
Post Gupta Period (Huns, Vardhans and Gurjars)
- In 503 A.D, Toranmal of Hun Dynasty defeated Guptas and captured Rajasthan.
- Mihirkula built Shiva temple in Badauli.
- Later Mihikula was defeated by Narsingh Baladitya Gupta and Rajasthan was reoccupied by Guptas.
- Capital of Gurjar-Pratihar was Bhinmal.
- Chinese traveler Huang Tsang visited Bhinmal during his period.
- Brahmagupta belongs to Bhinmal.
- Gurajar pratihar stopped Arab invasion from North West.
Other Archeological Sites
- Ganeshwar: Located on the bank of river Kantali in Sikar District.
- Sunari: On the bank of river Kantali in Jhunjhuni district. Iron Age site.
Kurada: In Nagaur district. Called Town of Tools.
Iswaal: In Udaipur district. Industrial Town (Bcz of Iron Mine in Ancient time)
Gardara: In Bundi district. Rock paintings of ancient India are found.
Jodhpura: On the bank of river Sabi in Jaipur district.