Art and Culture plays a very significant role in the development of a nation. They represents shared attitudes, values, goals and practices of a region. India is symbolized by Unity in diversity due to plurality of the culture. India has one of the world’s largest collections of songs, music, dance, theatre, folk traditions, performing arts, rites and rituals, paintings, festivals writings that are known, as the ‘Intangible Cultural Heritage’ (ICH) of humanity.
We have already provided you with Art and Culture of India part 1. Now, we have come up with the Art and Culture of India, Part 2.
State Festivals in India
● Brahmotsavam- celebrated at Sri Venkateswara Temple in Tirupati, for nine days during the months of September – October.
● Bhishma Ekadasi, Deccan Festival, Pitr, Sankranthi, Tyagaraja Festival
● Losar Festival- Tibetan New year, Marked with ancient ceremonies that represent the struggle between good and evil
● Chalo Loku, Pongtu
● Bohag Bihu- The spring festival of Bohaag Bihu or Rongali Bihu ushers in the New Year in the State of Assam, which marks the onset of a new agricultural cycle.
● Magh or Bhogali Bihu
● Chhath Puja- Also called Dala Puja devoted to worshiping the sun is traditionally celebrated by the people of Bihar.
● Bastar Dussehra - The longest Dussehra celebration in the world is celebrated in Bastar and spans over 75 days starting around August and ending in October.
● Maghi Purnima- It is the flagship festival of this state which encompasses the birth anniversary of Guru Ghasidas.
● Carnival- Three-day non-stop extravaganza of fun, song, music, and dance celebrated just before the 40 days of Lent.
● Shigmo Mela- it is a counterpart of the festival of colors Holi
● Sunburn Festival
● Janmashtami - Birth anniversary of Lord Krishna
● Diwali - Festival of lights, Festival marks the beginning of the New Year.
● Navaratra, Kutch Rann Utsav
● Gochi Festival- In this festival the villagers celebrate the birth of male children. Token marriages of children below the age of six are also performed
● Mahashivaratri- A week-long international Mandi Shivratri Fair and Sobha Yatra are held near the Temple of Bhoothnath (Lord Shiva) every year
● Gugga Naumi - Snake-worship. It is observed in the months of August-September.
● Surajkund Mela, Baishakhi
Jammu and Kashmir
● Eid-ul-Fitr - Marks the end of fasting month of Ramadan.
● Eid-ul-Azha - More prominent for the Qurbani (sacrifice). People sacrifice goats, sheep and some even camels
● Bahu Mela- It is a biannual festival held at the Kali Temple in Bahu Fort. It is celebrated twice a year in the month of March-April and September-October.
● Chhari (Pilgrimage to Amarnath cave), Urs, Har Navami
● Karam Festival - It is celebrated 15 days after the Kunwaar-Shukla-Paksha.
● Holi- Festival of colors, celebrated in the months of February/March.
● Ugadi- Celebrated in the second half of March or in early April. It marks the beginning of the new Hindu lunar calendar.
● Mahamastakabhisheka – Held once every 12 years in veneration of Gomateswara Bahubali at Sravanbelagola.
● Mysore Dasara, Makar Sankramana.
● Onam- The festival is celebrated to welcome King Mahabali. It is celebrated in Chingam (August-September) and lasts for ten days. Vallamkali, the enchanting Snake Boat Race, Folk performances like Kummatti kali and Pulikali add to the zest of celebrations. Nehru Trophy Boat Race is also organized.
● Vishu, Pooram
● Lokrang festival - Most iconic dance festival of MP which signifies the existing legacy of its dance
● Diwali, Khajuraho Dance Festival
● Nongkrem Dance Festival- Five days long religious festival devoted to appeasing the Goddess Ka Blei Synshar for a rich bumper harvest and prosperity of the people
● Khasis - Dance festival
● Ganesh Chaturthi- Falls in months of August - September. Ganesh images are kept in houses as a divine guest for five to ten days by people. The image is then taken out ceremoniously and immersed in the river, sea or well. It is called Visarjan.
● Nag Panchami, Navratri, Gudi Padva
● Yaoshang- It is celebrated for five days. It commences from the full moon day of Phalguna (February/March). The main highlight of the festival is the Thabal Chongba dance.
● ChapcharKut Festival - Marks the clearing and readying of hill slopes for jhum or shifting cultivation.
● Hornbill Festival- It is one of the biggest cultural extravaganzas in the North East & held every year from Dec1-10. It is a festival to protect, revive and promote the richness of the Naga heritage and traditions.
● Sekrenyi – It is celebrated by the Angami Tribe. It is also associated with celebrating the rich culture of the tribes that has lasted for many a moon.
● Rath Yatra (Dola Yatra) – It triggers the construction of the Oriya calendar and its consequent presentation to their deity Jagannath who also carries another name of Dola Govinda. Mainly celebrated at Puri.
● Raja Parba - It is the living cultural heritage and agricultural way of life. It is held for three days in June.
● Akshaya Tritiya, Konark Festival
● Lohri – It is celebrated on the 13th of January a day before Makar Sankranti. It is dedicated to the Sun god.
● Baisakhi - Marks the time for harvest of Rabi crops. Traditional folk dances Bhangra and Giddha are performed by men and women to the beat of Dhol
● Bandi Chhor Divas, Guru Parab
● Gangaur Festival - It falls a fortnight after Holi & is celebrated for 18 days in honor of Goddess Parvati mostly by the womenfolk of Rajasthan. It is also the consequent celebration of the harvest.
● Teej, Pushkar Fair, Urs at Ajmer.
● Losar – Celebrated on the dawn of the new Tibetan year
● Saga Dawa - Magnificent carnival famous for masked dances
● Pongal- Four-day-long harvest festival which falls in the month of January-February. Bhogi festival, Thai Pongal, Mattu Pongal is celebrated. Is is the local Makar Sankranti of this state.
● Thyagaraja Aradhana, Jallikattu, Panguni Uthiram, Puthandu (Tamil New Year)
● Bonalu- The word Bonalu came from "Bhojanalu" which is offered to the goddess during festival time.
● Bathukamma – It involves worship of goddess Gauri and consequent celebrations.
● Kharchi Puja - It is the worship of the fourteen gods of Tripura and is celebrated in the month of July-August. It ends up with sacrifices of cattle to the Earth God.
● Tripureshwari Temple Festival.
● Durga Puja- Also referred to as Durgotsava. It is commemorated by worshipping Goddess Durga
● Ganga Dusshera- It is a day of devotion and faith celebrated in the month of June.
● Purna Kumbh Mela
● Navaratri - Celebrated for nine nights during which people worship Goddess Durga and her nine forms to seek her blessings.
● Ram Navmi - Marks the birth anniversary of God Rama and is celebrated with worship of girls and other females of the society
● Brahmostav, Kans ka Mela, Sravana festival, Ram Leela, Ganga Mahotsav
Popular Harvest Festivals Of India
- Makar Sankranti (January) – celebrated Pan India in different ways but mainly in the north.
- Baisakhi (April)- Punjab and Haryana
- Ladakh Harvest Festival (September) - Ladakh, Zanskar, Kargil (J&K)
- Lohri (January) - Punjab
- Basant Panchami (January)– A festival to celebrate birth of goddess Saraswati , Celebrated in different states of North India
North East India
- Bhogali Bihu (January)– Assam
- Wangala (November)- Meghalaya and Assam
- Ka Pomblang Nongkrem (November) – Meghalaya
East And West India
- Nuakhai (August) – Orissa
- Gudi Padwa (March) – Maharashtra
- Nabanna (November and December) - West Bengal
- Onam (August) – Kerala
- Pongal (January) - Tamil Nadu
- Ugadi (March) - Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka
- Vishu (April) - Kerala and Karnataka.
New Year Festival
Ugadi / Chaitra Suddha Padyami
Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka
Religious Festivals of India
Secular Festivals of India
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