Set of Laws for Electronic Configuration
- According to this, the lower-energy atomic orbitals are filled first.
- The electron then moves to the higher atomic energy levels to occupy them.
- The electronic configuration of atoms in their ground state is written using this rule.
- The electrons may leave the lower energy state and transition to a higher energy level when in the excited state.
- Atomic orbitals are filled in the following order: 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p.
- As a result, the atomic orbital with the lower (n + l) value will have less energy, where n is the primary quantum number and l is the azimuthal quantum number.
Pauli's exclusion principle:
- The four quantum numbers n, m, l, and s describe one electron.
- According to Pauli's exclusion principle, each electron must have a distinct combination of these four quantum numbers.
- The quantum numbers of any two electrons cannot be identical.
- To put it simply, we can say that an orbital can hold up to two electrons at most, and they should have opposite spins ( + ½, - ½ ).
Hund's rule of maximum spin multiplicity:
- The subshell will first be occupied by a single electron before being filled with electrons of the same energy, or degeneracy.
- When every subshell has been occupied solely, electron pairing will begin.
- According to this criterion, the maximal spin should be preserved while adding electrons to a subshell.
- The most stable state is produced by the largest spin state, which also entails the most exchange energy.
- Element Cu has an atomic number of 29.
- The electronic configuration should be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d9.
- Due to their lower energy or greater stability, the partially filled and fully filled configurations (d5d10f7f14) are the cause of this.
- However, the actual electronic configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d10 or [Ar] 3d10 4s1
- Thus, in order for the 4d orbitals to have a fully filled configuration, the 5s electrons enter them in order for them to become stable.
- The electron can smoothly go from the lower energy 4s orbital to the higher energy 3d orbital.
- The minimal energy difference between the 4s and 3d orbitals makes this possible.
Therefore, electronic configuration of copper [Z = 29] is [Ar] 3d10 4s1
Electronic configuration of copper [Z = 29] is - (a) [Ar] 3d94s2 (b) [Ar] 3d94s14p1 (c) [Ar] 3d104s1 (d) [Ar] 3d84s24p1
The electronic configuration of copper [Z = 29] is [Ar] 3d10 4s1. The arrangement of electrons in an atom's electronic levels is known as its electronic configuration.