What is the Working Principle of a Transformer?

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 25th, 2023

The working principle of a transformer is based on the law of mutual induction of Faraday. It states that when a magnetic flux which is linked to a circuit changes, it will induce an electromotive force current.


  1. It is a device that either raises or lowers the voltage as it distributes electrical energy from one alternating current circuit to one or more circuits.
  2. To run low voltage devices, transformers are employed to lower the voltage of traditional power circuits.
  3. Additionally, it is employed to increase the voltage coming from electric generators so that long-distance transmission of electric power is possible.

Working principle

  1. The mutual induction law of Faraday is the basis of the transformer.
  2. According to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, an electromotive force current will induce itself into a circuit whenever there is a change in the magnetic flux that is connected to it.
  3. Only alternating current can be used because mutual induction between the two windings requires an alternating flux.
  4. The laminated silicon steel core is covered by two distinct windings that make up the transformer.
  5. The primary winding is the one to which the AC supply is linked, and the secondary winding is the one to which the load is connected.
  6. This induced emf is flowing in the opposite direction to the applied voltage.
  7. An alternating flux forms in the transformer’s core and links with the secondary winding as soon as a specific voltage of AC power is applied to the primary winding. This causes an induced emf in the secondary winding that is known as a mutually induced emf.



What is the Working Principle of a Transformer?

A transformer’s operation is governed by Faraday’s law of mutual induction. It claims that an electromotive force current will be induced when a magnetic flux connected to a circuit changes.

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