What is the working principle of a capacitor?

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 25th, 2023

The working principle of a capacitor is that a conductor’s capacitance indicates an increase when the earthed conductor is brought near it. A capacitor is a part that is used to store charges in an electrical circuit. An earthed conductor’s capacitance is assumed to visibly rise when it is brought close to another conductor in order for a capacitor to work. As a result, a capacitor has two plates that are separated from one another and have equal and opposite charges.

The space between the conductors can be filled with a vacuum or a dielectric, an insulating material. The term “capacitance” refers to a capacitor’s ability to store charges. The capacitance equation is given by:

q = CV [q = charge, C = capacitance, V = voltage]

Working Principle of a Capacitor

  • Take a look at the circuit below, which demonstrates how a parallel plate capacitor with a dielectric between them operates.
  • Placing plate 1 in the positive and plate 2 in the negative, apply the voltage V as indicated in the circuit. The capacitor creates an electric field.
  • Plate 1 will receive a positive charge from the battery when the voltage is applied to it, while plate 2 will receive a negative charge.
  • The capacitor’s charging time is the period of time when the voltage is given, during which the capacitor is charged to its maximum holding charge.
  • We will eventually cut off the power to the capacitor once it has finished charging to its maximum capacity. For a while, the two plates are charged negatively and positively.
  • As a result, the capacitor functions as a power source. Once all charges on both plates have been discharged, current flows from plate 1 to plate 2 if these plates are linked to a load.
  • The dissipation time is the amount of time required for the capacitor to discharge.


What is the working principle of a capacitor?

When an earthed conductor is moved close to a conductor, the capacitance of that conductor increases, which is how capacitors function. In an electric circuit, a capacitor is a part that stores the charges.

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