What are the functions of stomata?

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 25th, 2023

Stomata using closing and opening processes help in the exchange of gases. The excess water from leaves is eradicated using stomata. During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is absorbed and oxygen is removed by the stomata. The plant’s tissues have microscopic holes or apertures that let gases pass through. They are typically found in plant leaves or, on rare occasions, on stems.

Structure of Stomata

The stomata are made up of tiny pores termed stoma that is encircled by two guard cells. The turgidity of guard cells determines how frequently stomata open and close. The pore’s surrounding cell wall is resilient and adaptable.

  • Both monocots and dicots typically have different guard cell shapes, but the mechanism is the same in both.
  • Guard cells have chloroplasts and are shaped like beans. They absorb light and have chlorophyll in them.
  • The guard cells are surrounded by the subsidiary cells. They are the accessory cells to guard cells and are found in the epidermis of plants. They guard epidermal cells when guard cells enlarge during stomatal opening because they are situated between guard cells and epidermal cells.
  • About 300 stomata are present on a square mm of leaf surface on average.

Functions of Stomata

  • Closing and opening the pores in the leaves primarily serves to exchange gases.
  • It helps to remove extra water from the leaves.
  • During photosynthesis, it absorbs carbon dioxide while expelling oxygen.
  • It aids in tracking the transpiration-based movement of water.



What are the functions of stomata?

The process of stomata closing and opening aids in the exchange of gases. Stomata are used to expel extra water from leaves. The stomata absorb carbon dioxide while expelling oxygen during photosynthesis.

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