# How to calculate the number of electrons?

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 25th, 2023

The number of electrons can be calculated as it is equal to the atomic number of an element, for neutrally charged species. The smallest discrete unit of matter is an atom. It is made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons.

### Number of Electrons

• A subatomic particle with a negative charge is called an electron.
• In an atom, electrons are organised into spherical shells with various radii.
• Mass of an electron: 9.1093837015 x 10-31 kg
• Charge on the electron is -1.602176634 x 10-19 C

Subatomic particles known as electrons have an elementary charge of magnitude -1. A proton’s charge and an electron’s charge are of similar magnitude (but have opposite signs). Through his research with cathode ray tubes, the English physicist J.J. Thomson discovered the electron in the year 1897.

In an atom:

• In a neutral atom, there are exactly as many electrons as protons.
• As a result, for neutrally charged species, the number of electrons in an atom is equal to the atomic number of an element.

Summary:

## How to calculate the number of electrons?

For neutrally charged species, the number of electrons may be estimated since it is equal to the atomic number of an element. The atomic number is equal to the number of protons in the atom’s nucleus (Z).

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