How is a bacterial cell different from an onion peel cell?

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 25th, 2023

Bacterial cells are prokaryotes which are of small size and do not possess a nucleus whereas the onion peel cells are eukaryotes which are of large size and possess a nucleus. Prokaryotes are bacteria cells. They’re tiny. Eukaryotic cells are those found in onion peels. Their size is bigger.

Bacterial cell

Onion peel

Typically small in size (1-10mm)

Typically large in size (5-100mm)

The nucleus is absent.

The nucleus is present.

It possesses only one chromosome.

It possesses many chromosomes.

The nucleolus is not present.

The nucleolus is present here.

Organelles that are membrane-bound are not present.

There are organelles such as lysosomes, mitochondria, and plastids.


  • As one of the oldest groupings of living things on the planet, prokaryotes have been found in fossil records that date back approximately 3.5 billion years.
  • These prokaryotes survived and thrived in the prehistoric environment of the planet, some utilising chemical energy and others solar energy. For millions of years, these extremophiles survived while adapting and evolving. These organisms may have been the ancestors of eukaryotes, according to scientists.
  • Compared to eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic cells are significantly smaller and less complex. Prokaryotic cells are further distinguished by the absence of membrane-bound cell organelles, such as a nucleus. Binary fission is the mechanism for reproduction.


  • Eukaryotes are structurally made up of a cell wall that supports and shields the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane, which encircles the cell, regulates the entry and departure of specific chemicals.
  • DNA, which is responsible for housing all genetic data, is found in the nucleus. The nuclear membrane encloses the nucleus. The nucleolus, which is a component of the nucleus, is essential for protein synthesis. Additionally, mitochondria are found in eukaryotic cells. These organelles are in charge of generating energy, which the cell uses.
  • Chloroplasts are the subcellular locations of photosynthesis and are only found in plant cells. The endoplasmic reticulum aids in material movement. Ribosomes, lysosomes, Golgi bodies, cytoplasm, chromosomes, vacuoles, and centrosomes are additional cell organelles that serve a variety of other purposes.


How is a bacterial cell different from an onion peel cell?

In contrast to the onion peel cells, which are eukaryotes and are huge and contain nuclei, bacterial cells are prokaryotes, which are small in size and lack a nucleus. Prokaryotes are the oldest living things which have record from 3.5 billion years old.

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