Explain the Structure of bacteria.

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 25th, 2023

The structure of bacteria contains a cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosome, plasmid, flagella, pili, and capsule. Bacterial cell walls are composed of the glycoprotein murein. The primary purpose of the cell wall is to aid in giving the cell stability, stiffness, and mechanical strength. It prevents cells in a hypotonic medium from bursting.

Structure of Bacteria

Plasma Membrane:

  • Its other names include cell membrane and cytoplasmic membrane.
  • Its fluid-mosaic structure is made up of phospholipids, proteins, and carbohydrates.
  • It aids in the transportation of substances, including the elimination of bodily waste.
  • It aids in giving the cell a mechanical barrier.
  • Only certain materials are permitted to enter and exit the cell through the plasma membrane, which serves as a semi-permeable membrane.


  • aids in cellular replication, growth, and metabolism.
  • All of the substances and parts necessary to support a bacterium’s life are stored in the cytoplasm.


  • a microscopic protein- and RNA-containing granule.
  • They are where protein synthesis takes place.
  • They are unattached structures that aid in the transmission of the genetic code.


  • Small DNA circles are known as plasmids.
  • Plasmids are abundant in bacterial cells.
  • DNA is transferred between bacterial cells using plasmids.


  • This tail rotates rigidly.
  • It aids the cell’s forward motion in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions as well as in spinning.
  • The H+ gradient across the cell membrane drives the rotation.


  • proteins with short appendages.
  • less compact than flagella.
  • stains surfaces with bacteria.
  • During conjugation, it aids in reproduction as well.


  • A sort of slime coating called a capsule protects the cell wall’s outside.
  • They consist of a substantial polysaccharide.
  • It serves as a food reserve and is used to bind cells together.
  • It shields the cell from chemicals and dryness.


Explain the Structure of bacteria.

Bacteria have a cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosome, plasmid, flagella, pili, and capsule as part of their structure. Bacteria are unicellular organisms belonging to the prokaryotic group where the organisms lack a few organelles and a true nucleus.

Our Apps Playstore
SSC and Bank
Other Exams
GradeStack Learning Pvt. Ltd.Windsor IT Park, Tower - A, 2nd Floor, Sector 125, Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201303
Home Practice Test Series Premium