Important Notes on Vitamins and Minerals for Defence Exams

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 25th, 2023

Vitamins and minerals in a very important topic of Biology to prepare for any competitive exam. Many questions are asked about scientific names and disease caused due to their deficiencies. So here is the article to prepare vitamins and minerals for the exam.

Vitamins and minerals are essential for human beings, need to be taken in daily diet. There are a total of 13 essential vitamins and minerals, required by the body for the proper functioning of the body.

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Vitamin is a combination of two Latin words Vita and amine which means life and nitrogen, respectively. Vitamins act as a catalyst for the generation of energy by using fats and carbohydrates properly. Humans can’t live without them. The human body does not produce them (except vitamin D and vitamin B3). Humans take them through different sources such as food, vitamin capsules, etc.

There are two types of Vitamin

  1. Fat-soluble vitamins: Which are dissolved in fat
  2. Water-soluble vitamins: Which are dissolved in water

Fat-Soluble Vitamins


 Scientific Name

Food Source


Vitamin A 


Milk, liver, nuts, tomatoes, oranges, carrots, green leafy vegetables, ripe yellow fruits, etc

  • Hyperkeratosis
  • Night blindness,
  • keratomalacia

Vitamin D


Fish, egg, liver, beef, cod, chicken breast, etc 

  • Rickets 
  • Osteomalacia

Vitamin E 


Pumpkin, guava, mango, Potatoes, Milk, nuts, seeds etc.

  • Heart problems
  • Hemolysis
  • Sterility

Vitamin K 


Cashew nuts, beef, tomatoes, broccoli, etc. chestnuts

  • Haemorrhage
  • Non-clotting of Blood

Water-Soluble Vitamins


 Scientific Name

Food Source


Vitamin C

Ascorbic acid

broccoli, sweet potato, pineapple, cauliflower, kale, lemon juice, parsley, Guava, bell pepper, kiwi, orange, grapefruit, strawberries, Brussels sprouts, cantaloupe, papaya, etc

  • Swelling of Gums
  • Scurvy

Vitamin B1


Fresh fruits, potatoes, sweet potatoes, peas, corn, cashew nuts, wheat, milk, black beans, dates etc


Vitamin B2


Almonds, soybeans/tempeh, mushrooms, spinach, whole wheat, yoghurt, mackerel, eggs, liver, etc.

cracks, fissures and sores at the corner of mouth and lips, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, photophobia, glossitis of tongue, anxiety, loss of appetite, and fatigue.

Vitamin B3


Carrots, almonds, celery, turnips, peaches, chicken meat, tuna, salmon, mushrooms, asparagus, peanuts, brown rice, corn, green leafy vegetables, sweet potato, potato, lentil, barley, etc.


Vitamin B5

Pantothenic acid

Broccoli, lentils, split peas, avocado, whole wheat, mushrooms, sweet potato, sunflower seeds, cauliflower, etc.


Vitamin B6


Whole wheat, brown rice, green leafy vegetables, sunflower seeds, potato, garbanzo beans, banana, trout, spinach, tomatoes, avocado, walnuts, peanut butter, etc


Vitamin B7


Green leafy vegetables, most nuts, whole-grain bread, avocado, raspberries, cauliflower, carrots, etc.

  • Dermatitis
  • Enteritis

Vitamin B9

Folic acid

Green leafy vegetables, asparagus, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, citrus fruits, black-eyed peas, spinach, great northern beans, whole grains, baked beans, etc.

Megaloblastic anaemia.

Vitamin B12 


Fortified cereals, liver, trout, salmon, tuna, haddock, egg, etc.

Minerals help in the growth of the human body, found in nature, and their deficiency could lead to several disorders.






Asparagus, green leafy vegetables,sea vegetables, iodized salt, eggs, strawberries,etc 

Essential for Healthy hair, nails, skin and teeth. Also controls the growth and weight of the body

Impairs growth and neurological development. Deficiency can also result in the decreased production of thyroid hormones and hypertrophy of the thyroid.


Green leafy vegetables, legumes, Milk, etc

Required for healthy bones, teeth and immune system

Long-term inadequate intake can result in low bone mineral density, rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis.


Any processed foods, whole grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, vegetables

Helps in the regulation of blood pressure and blood volume. It also helps in the  proper the functioning of nerves and muscles

Low blood sodium mostly result of increased fluid retention. One may notice nausea, vomiting, headache, cramps, fatigue, and disorientation.


Seafood, corn, wild rice, nuts, seeds, whole grains, eggs, fish, buckwheat, etc. 

It, along with the Calcium, is required for the formation of bones, teeth, etc.

Premature infants, those who use antacids, alcoholics etc are more at risk.


Legumes, nuts, seeds, whole grains, fruits.

Magnesium plays an important role in relaying signals between your brain and body.

Very rare because of the abundance of magnesium in foods. Those with gastrointestinal disorders, kidney disorders, and alcoholism are at risk.

CDS-I 2016

Question.1 Which of the following pairs of vitamin and disease is/are correctly matched?
1) Vitamin A: Rickets
2) Vitamin B1: Beriberi
3) Vitamin C: Scurvy
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

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