Dandi March – Date, Movement, Reason of Dandi March 1930

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

Dandi March, or the Salt March, was a non-violent demonstration against the repressive Salt Act implemented by the British Government during their rule in India. Dandi Yatra was started by Mahatma Gandhi and his followers on 12 March 1930 and lasted for 24 days. Dandi March initiated the civil disobedience movement led by Mahatma Gandhi from Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, to the town of Dandi, which is on the coastal side of the state.

Salt March was a non-violent protest to overthrow British rule in India. The main motive for starting this rally was to produce salt from the sea and violate the salt law. In this article, you will learn about the important aspects of Dandi March, its history, cause, timeline, course, important effects, and major drawbacks.

What is Dandi March?

The Dandi March was a historic moment in the history of the Indian freedom struggle. Salt Satyagraha was integral to the Civil Disobedience Movement, which the Indian National Congress started in 1930. Dandi March was a direct answer to the British government’s cruel salt law that gave the government a monopoly on salt manufacturing.

Dandi March UPSC Notes

Mahatma Gandhi and his 78 followers marched to Dandi from the Sabarmati Ashram and covered a distance of more than 390 km starting on 12 March 1930. On completing the march, Gandhi broke the salt law by collecting and making salt from the sea.

Causes of Dandi March Movement

The major cause of the Dandi March Movement was that Indians were used to making salt from the seawater until the British Government passed the Salt Act of 1882. As per the Salt Act, Indians were prohibited from producing or selling salt. The production or sale of salt by anyone other than the government was considered illegal.

It was a lucrative monopoly crafted by the British, which required Indians to buy the costly and heavily taxed salt. Most Indians, labourers and farmers, in particular, could not afford to buy the highly-priced salt that was otherwise easily accessible from the coastlines. Gandhi came up with Salt Satyagraha to defy the unjust Salt Act.

Background of Dandi March

The Lahore Congress of 1929 had allowed the CWC or Congress Working Committee to set up a program of Civil Disobedience, including non-payment of taxations. Independence Day was celebrated on 26 January 1930, with the national flag of India being hosted at different sites, and patriotic hymns were sung.

CWC gathering at Sabarmati Ashram in February 1930 supported Mahatma Gandhi with full strength to establish the Civil Disobedience Movement at his preferred time and location. Lord Irwin, Viceroy of India (1926-31), received an ultimatum from Gandhiji. It expressed that the basic needs of the people had been overlooked, and the solution was to bring Civil Disobedience into action.

Facts about Dandi March by Mahatma Gandhi

The Dandi march was a mass civil disobedience movement led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. The rally was organized as a non-violent protest against the salt tax introduced by the British Government. Here are some significant facts about the protest:

  • Mahatma Gandhi informed of his plan of leading the Dandi march to Lord Irwin on 2 March 1930.
  • The salt march began at the Sabarmati Ashram in Gujarat on 12 March 1930, led by Mahatma Gandhi and his followers.
  • On reaching the coastal village of Dandi on the morning of 6 April 1930, Gandhiji produced salt from seawater and broke the salt law. After this, thousands of people followed suit.
  • The march lasted 24 days and was joined by many notable names, such as Sarojini Naidu. People joined the march along the way leading up to the destination.
  • As a result of the salt march, the British Government declared the Congress Party illegal.


The Course of Dandi March

The Dandi March is also popularly known as Salt March and is considered the most effective act of the civil disobedience movement led by Mahatma Gandhi. The course of Dandi March is as follows:

  • On 2nd March 1930, Gandhiji informed Lord Irwin about his plan for the march.
  • On 12th March 1930, Mahatma Gandhi set out on foot, along with 78 followers, from Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad to the village of Dandi in Navsari District, Gujarat, to make salt from seawater by going against the salt act.
  • Along the way, hundreds of supporters joined Gandhiji’s core group to protest against the British’s monopoly on salt.
  • It was a 24-day march, and at every sunset, Gandhiji motivated his followers and other people by attacking the British government’s rule through his speeches.
  • Sarojini Naidu joined him in the Dandi March.
  • On 5th April 1930, the entourage reached Dandi village, completing the long journey of about 385 kilometres on foot.
  • On the 6th of April, Gandhiji and his followers picked up lumps of salt along the shore, thus breaking the laws of the Salt Act.

Salt March – Timeline and Events

Mahatma Gandhi took a noble path of non-cooperation. Throughout the Dandi March, several people joined in paying their tribute. Gandhi taught everyone the dignified way of truth and non-violence.

Below is the complete timeline of Salt March starting from March 12 till April 6 of 1930, covering the places and overall distance.

Dandi March Date Distance (miles) Significant Events Location
March 12 13 Miles Gandhi started the March with 78 Satyagrahis from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi at 6.30 am

Dandi March: Stopped in the evening at Aslali

March 13 9 Miles Stop (Day) – Bareja

Stop (Evening) – Navagam

Bareja, Navagam
March 14 10 Miles Kharag Bahadur Singh and Satish Kalelkar joined the “first batch” Marchers

Stop (Day) – Wasna

Stop (Evening) – Matar

Wasna, Matar
March 15 15 Miles Stop (Day) – Dabhan

Stop (Evening) – Nadiad

Dabhan, Nadiad
March 16 15 Miles Stop (Day) – Boriavi

Stop (Evening) – Anand

Boriavi, Anand
March 17 Rest time in Anand Anand
March 18 11 Miles Stop (Day) – Napa

Stop (Evening) – Borsad

Napa, Borsad
March 19 12 Miles Stop (Day) – Ras

Evening speech at Kankapura

Crossed Mahi Sagar river during the night of 19/20 March

Ras, Kankapura
March 20 11 Miles A stop at Kareli Crossed Mahi Sagar River early morning and napped on the bank, Kareli
March 21 11 Miles AICC meeting at Ahmedabad affirms Working Committee solution of February 14-16

Stop (Day) – Gajera

Stop (Evening) – Ankhi

Gajera, Ankhi
March 22 12 Miles Gandhi meets with AICC diplomats

Anand Bhavan granted to Congress by Motilal Nehru

Stop (Day) – Jambusar

Stop (Evening) – Amod

Jambusar, Amod
March 23 12 Miles Stop (Day) – Buva

Stop (Evening) – Samni

Buva, Samni
March 24 Rest day in Samni Samni
March 25 10 Miles Stop (Day) – Tralsa

Stop (Evening) – Derol

Tralsa, Derol
March 26 13 Miles Stop (Day) – Broach

Stop (Evening) – Ankleshwar

Broach, Ankleshwar

(crossed River Narmada)

March 27 12 Miles Stop (Day) – Sajod

Stop (Evening) – Mangrol

Sajod, Mangrol
March 28 10 Miles Stop (Day) – Rayma

Stop (Evening) – Umrachi

Rayma, Umrachi

(Traveled Kim River)

March 29 10 Miles Stop (Day) – Ertham

Stop (Evening) – Bhatgam

Ertham, Bhatgam
March 30 10 Miles Stop (Day) – Sandhier

Stop (Evening) – Delad

Sandhier, Delad
March 31 Rest day in Delad Delad
April 1 11 Miles Stop (Day) – Chhaprabhata

Stop (Evening) – Outside Surat

A mass gathering in Surat city

Chhaprabhatha, Surat

(Traveled Tapti River)

April 2 12 Miles Leader in Legislative Assembly, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya surrenders his seat

Stop (Day) – Dindoli

Stop (Evening) – Vanz

Dindoli, Vanz
April 3 13 Miles Stop (Day) – Dhaman

Stop (Evening) – Navsari

Dhaman, Navsari
April 4 19 Miles Stop (Day) – Vijalpur

Stop (Evening) – Matwad

Vijalpur, Matwad
April 5 4 Miles Marchers reached and spent the day at Dandi Dandi
April 6,  

Gandhi violates Salt Law at 6.30 am in Dandi

Salt Satyagraha begins

Impact of Dandi March

Breaking the salt law was a direct challenge to British rule in India. Further, it started a series of salt marches in the country, drawing the attention of lakhs in and outside. The Dandi March, led by Mahatma Gandhi, resulted in the following.

After the highly visible Dandi March, Gandhiji continued to protest against the salt tax and encouraged fellow Indians to commit non-violent acts of civil disobedience. However, the British Government tried to suppress these movements.

  • Several peaceful marchers were arrested by the British Government, including Gandhiji himself;
  • Besides the Salt Act, several other acts, including the Land Tax, Chowkidar Tax, and Forest Tax, were being defied by Indians;
  • The movement resulted in violence in certain parts of the country, like Karachi and Calcutta;
  • But unlike the non-cooperation movement, the Salt March was not called off by Gandhi;
  • C. Rajagopalachari led a similar march from Trichy to Vedaranyam on the southeast coast of Tamil Nadu;
  • Inspired by the Dandi March, similar marches were conducted in the Malabar region of Calicut, in Assam and in Andhra Pradesh;
  • Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, the disciple of Gandhi, led Satyagraha in Peshawar and got arrested;
    • During Satyagraha, he trained Khudai Khidmatgars;
    • Despite being unarmed, the British army fired on them as they had gathered in Qissa Khwani Bazaar.

Effects of Salt March

Masses boycotted foreign clothes. Even the liquor stores were picketed. Sarojini Naidu led a peaceful protest against the Dharasana Salt Works on 21 May 1930. However, police started a lathi-charge, which resulted in the brutal death of two protestors.

The protest pushed these freedom fighters and their struggle for independence under Western media’s limelight. Gandhiji was released from custody in January 1931, after which the Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed on 5th March 1931. The pact marked the end of Satyagraha and the Civil Disobedience movement in India.

Importance of Dandi March in the Civil Disobedience Movement

Soon after Gandhi Ji was released from jail, he tried to compromise with the British government before launching the Civil Disobedience movement. He placed 11 essential demands, which Lord Irwin accepted in the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. The major demands of Gandhi Ji were:

  • Reduction of the Rupee-Sterling ratio;
  • Abolishment of the Salt tax;
  • Abolishment of Salt monopoly by the government;
  • Reduction in the highest grade services salaries;
  • Reduction in military expenditure;
  • Indian textiles protection;
  • Reduction in land revenue;
  • Discharge of all the political prisoners.

Recreation of Dandi March 2021

To celebrate the significant and memorable Dandi March 91 years ago, 81 participants from Ahmedabad reenacted the Dandi March on 12th March 2021 as they embarked on their journey from Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad to Dandi village.

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi flagged off the Padayatra (journey by foot), an enactment of the Dandi March, to celebrate the 75th Anniversary of India’s Independence;
  • The recreation of the Dandi March is part of the Azadi ka Amrut Mahotsav launched by the Prime Minister to signify 75 years of Indian Independence;
  • During the event’s inauguration, Prime Minister Modi also launched ‘Atmanirbhar Incubator’, a program of the Ministry of Culture to preserve the art and skills of local artisans and craftsmen and promote indigenous cotton and other cotton products;
  • He also launched the official website for the 75th anniversary of India’s Independence.

Major Drawbacks of Dandi March

Though Dandi March is considered one of the historical events in the Indian struggle for independence, it took a long time to get independence. The following drawbacks of Salt March led to the delay:

  • There was no procurement of huge concessions from the British Government;
  • Since the British could play divide and rule, Muslims did not support the Salt Satyagraha movement to a large extent.

Short Note on Dandi March

Mahatma Gandhi initiated Dandi March. It was a 24-day march from his Sabarmati Ashram to the seaside town of Dandi to make salt from the sea and disobey the salt law. The Salt March started on 12th March 1930 and ended on 6th April 1930. Dandi March is also called the Salt March.

Several inspirational leaders, like C Rajagopalachari, Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay, and Sarojini Naidu, led salt movements in different areas. The Dandi March flared a movement that spread across India, ultimately achieving Mahatma Gandhi’s desire for ultimate freedom for the citizens of his beloved country.

Dandi March UPSC

The Dandi March topic is an important topic from where questions are framed in the GS-1 paper of UPSC Prelims and even in the Mains exam. Students must read and learn facts about Mahatma Gandhi, Sarojini Naidu, Sabarmati, and Dharasana Salt for Prelims.

Additionally, topics like Indian National Movement, Important Personalities, Civil Disobedience Movement, and their significance need to be covered well for Mains. Aspirants must ensure that they study NCERT Books for UPSC thoroughly to build a strong basic foundation on the topic before moving on to reading any other advanced book.

Dandi March Sample Questions

Question: Which one of the following began with the Dandi March? (2009) – Quit India Movement, Home Rule Movement, Non-Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement
Answer: Civil Disobedience Movement

Question: With reference to the British colonial rule in India, consider the following statements: (2019) (1) In Lord Chelmsford’s ‘War Conference’, Mahatma Gandhi did not support the resolution on recruiting Indians for World War, (2) Consequent upon the breaking of Salt Law by Indian people, the Indian National Congress was declared illegal by the colonial rulers, (3) Mahatma Gandhi was instrumental in the abolition of the system of ‘indentured labour’. Which of the statements are correct? 1 and 3 only, 2 and 3 only, 1 and 2 only, or 1, 2 and 3
Answer: 2 and 3 only

Question: The 1929 Session of Indian National Congress is of significance in the history of the Freedom Movement because the (2014). (1) Non-Cooperation Movement was launched, (2) Decision to participate in the Round Table Conference in London was taken, (3) Attainment of Self-Government was declared as the objective of the Congress, (4) Attainment of Poorna Swaraj was adopted as the goal of the Congress
Answer: Attainment of Poorna Swaraj was adopted as the goal of the Congress

Question: Why was the Dandi Yatra Started? (a) To free the arrested agitators, (b) To launch a movement against British oppression, (c) To break the salt law, (d) None of these
Answer: To break the salt law

UPSC Notes
Article 12 Indian Constitution 127 Constitutional Amendment Bill
104 Constitutional Amendment Act Surat Split
Unification of Germany FEMA Act
Citizenship in Indian Constitution Environmental Movements in India
Freedom Fighters of India French Revolution
Hydroelectric Power Plants in India Battle of Buxar
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