Gandhism and Marxism – Difference between Marxism and Gandhism

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

The difference between Marxism and Gandhism is that Marxism revolved around Karl Heinrich Marx and took a fierce route to set up a classless and stateless community. In contrast, Gandhism ideology revolved around Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and assumed that non-violence could be a way to eradicate this issue. Gandhi and Karl Marx were two great modern philosophers of our time, and both greatly impacted the world of modern politics. Their narratives and ideologies were primarily different, but in some instances, they had the same approach.

Difference Between Marxism and Gandhism PDF

Gandhism theory circles around the group of religious and social views adopted and formed, whereas, Marxism is the collaborative theory critically of politics, economics, and community. The article here focuses on the similarities and differences between Marxism and Gandhism, how to Compare the Marxian and Gandhian Approach to the Study of Indian Politics, etc.

Difference Between Marxism and Gandhism

There are supporters of both types of faith. Various countries have formed their government based on one of these doctrines. Marxism believes in material occupancies, while Gandhism supports spirituality.

Compare the Marxian and Gandhian Approach to the Study of Indian Politics

Difference between Marxism and Gandhism



Karl Marx believed in the ideology of the Proletariat’s Dictatorship.

Gandhi was an ardent supporter and had firm faith in democracy.

Karl Marx is regarded as the father of Socialism.

He disliked capitalism and chose violent methods to end and oppose it.

It wanted to end exploitation and capitalism.

Gandhism supported and encouraged cottage industries.

Marx believed powers should be given to the workers and the country should be driven by communalism.

Believed in the decentralization of power

Marxism believed in collective farming, as it would give greater state control.

On the other hand, Gandhi believed in cooperative farming and did not want the people to be landless.

Marxism, Karl Marx wanted to establish a classless and stateless society. He resorted to the violent path to achieve this.

Gandhism also wanted a classless and stateless society, but Gandhi resorted to non-violence to achieve this.

Marxism believes in materialism.

Gandhism supports spiritualism.

Gandhism and Marxism

Gandhian approach to studying Indian Politics is through the nature of the state based on the concept of Swaraj. It means the absence of alien rule and the establishment of self- Government.

  • In Marxism, political economy studies the means of production, specifically of capital, and how that manifests as economic activity.
  • Marxism taught me what society was.
  • Gandhism and Marxism are compelling theories with convergences and contrasts that shape our world of modern politics.
  • Both Gandhi and Marx aimed to establish a classless and stateless society.
  • Though they shared a common aim, their approach differed completely.

What is Gandhism?

It is defined as a set of ideas associated with the idea of nonviolent resistance and civil resistance. Gandhism describes the inspiration, vision, and life work of Mahatma Gandhi. The four pillars of Gandhism are:

  • Truth
  • Nonviolence
  • Sarvodaya
  • Satyagraha

What is Marxism?

Karl Marx and Fredrich Engels formulated the concept of Marxism in their work, ‘The Communist Manifesto’. Marxism refers to the social, political, and economic principles laid down by Karl Marx.

  • It studies the effect of capitalism on labour, productivity, and economic development.
  • The main aim of Marxism is to achieve a classless society worldwide.


Key Difference Between Marxism and Gandhism

The key Difference Between Marxism and Gandhism is that Gandhism considered the state a necessary evil and supported Thoreau’s dictum, ‘That Government is the best which governs the least’. Marxism, also known as the Class approach, seeks to study politics and society in terms of relations between two economic classes – the wealthy and the poor (workers).

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