UGC NET Study Notes on The Factories Act, 1948

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 13th, 2023

The topic Factories Act, 1948 comes in Unit 7 of UGC NET  Labour Welfare Syllabus. Among all other Acts in the syllabus, candidates preparing for UGC NET Labour Welfare must have thorough knowledge of Factories Act, 1948. 

Get complete UGC NET Study Notes on Factories Act, 1948 which includes the definition, concept, scope, best books for UGC NET Labour Welfare etc.  

What is the Factories Act, 1948?

Important points relating to the Factories Act, 1948

1- Unless adequate safety devices are provided, no portable electric light or any other electric appliance of a voltage exceeding twenty-four volts shall be permitted for use inside any chamber, tank or other confined space.

2- The occupier shall employ a such number of safety officers as prescribed in the notification by the state government under the following conditions:

  • If a factory has one thousand or more workers ordinarily employed.
  • If the state government feels that the manufacturing process involves any risk of bodily injury, poisoning or disease, or any other hazard to the health of workers.

3- The state government shall appoint a site appraisal committee (Section 41A) for granting permission for the initial location of a factory involving a hazardous process.

  • The chief inspector of the state shall be its chairman.

4- In every factory, first aid boxes shall be provided and the number of boxes shall not be less than one for every one hundred and fifty workers ordinarily employed in the factory. If more than five hundred workers are ordinarily employed, an ambulance room of the prescribed size shall be provided.

5- Shelters, restrooms and lunchrooms shall be provided in every factory wherein more than one hundred and fifty workers are ordinarily employed.

6- Creches shall be provided for the use of children under the age of six years in every factory wherein more than thirty women workers are ordinarily employed.

7- In a factory, the maximum weekly hours shall be forty-eight hours.

  • Unless approved by the chief inspector, no adult worker shall be required to work for more than nine hours on any day.
  • The periods of work shall not exceed five hours for adult workers in a factory before he has had an interval for the rest of at least half an hour.
  • On any day, the periods of work of an adult worker inclusive of intervals for rest shall not spread over more than ten and a half hours.
  • The Chief Inspector may increase the spread over up to twelve hours.
  • If a worker works for more than nine hours in any day or for more than forty-eight hours in any week, then it is considered overtime work, and he shall be paid at the rate of twice his ordinary rate of wages.

8- If the state government is satisfied with the nature of the work, it may grant exemptions to the working hours. The exemptions shall be subjected to the following conditions:

  • The total number of daily hours of work shall not exceed twelve.
  • The spread over, inclusive of rest intervals shall not exceed thirteen hours.
  • The total number of hours of work including overtime, shall not exceed sixty.
  • No worker shall be allowed to work overtime, for more than seven days at a stretch.
  • In any quarter, the total number of overtime work hours shall not exceed seventy-five.

9- Women shall be allowed to work in any factory between 6 A.M. and 7 P.M. The government may relax the timings for some factories but no such relaxation shall authorize the employment of women between 10 P.M. and 5 A.M.

10- No child shall be employed for work during the nights and for more than four and a half hours on any day.

  • The period of work for children shall not spread over for more than five hours each and is limited to two shifts.
  • A female child is allowed to work between 8 A.M. and 7 P.M.

11- Every worker who has worked for 240 days or more during a calendar year shall be allowed leave with wages.

  • For adults, one-day annual leave will be allowed for every twenty days of work.
  • For a child, one day annual leave for every fifteen days of work.

12- If any medical practitioner attends a person and believes that the person has been suffering from any disease specified in the third schedule, then the medical practitioner shall send a report in writing to the office of the Chief Inspector.

  • If any medical practitioner violates the provisions, he shall be punishable with a fine which may extend to one thousand rupees.

13- Obstructing the inspector willfully or failing to produce any register or document when demanded by the inspector shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with a fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees or with both.

14- The first schedule of the act is regarding the list of industries involving hazardous processes.

  • The industries include ferrous metallurgical industries, non-ferrous metallurgical industries, coal industries, power generating industries, fertilizer industries, petroleum industries, etc.

15- The second schedule of the act is regarding the permissible levels of certain chemical substances in the work environment.

16- The third schedule is regarding the list of notifiable diseases.

  • Some of the diseases include lead poisoning, silicosis, toxic anaemia, byssinosis, asbestosis, etc.

How to Prepare for UGC NET Labour Welfare?

Candidates preparing for UGC NET Exam as Labour Welfare for Paper 2 must have knowledge about the Factories Act, 1948.

  • All the applicants are also advised to solve as many UGC NET Previous Year Papers as possible. Previous Year Papers give you an idea of what to expect in the examination, it prepares you for the types of questions asked in the examination. 
  • UGC NET Mock Tests are also proven to be a great tool for preparation.

Best Books for UGC NET 2022 Labour Welfare

Candidates can refer to the following table for Best Books for UGC NET Labour Welfare. 

Book Name

Author/Publication Name

Trueman’s UGC NET HRM/Human Resource Management & Labour Welfare

Trueman Publication

Human Resource Management 

Biju Varkkey, Gary Dessler 

Industrial Relations, Trade Unions and Labour Legislation

P.R.N. Sinha, Indu Bala Sinha 

International Human Resource Management 

Edwards and Rees 

Human Resource Management

K Aswathappa 

Human Resource Management 

Stephen P. Robbins 

Industrial Relations and Labour Laws 

S C Srivastava

Organizational Behavior

Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge

Also Read:

UGC NET Labour Welfare Study Notes on Product Life Cycle Read Here
UGC NET Labour Welfare Study Notes on Organisational Culture Read Here
UGC NET Study Notes on Child and Adolescent Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 Read Here
UGC NET Study Notes on Organisational Change and its Models Read Here

Mock tests for UGC NET Exam

UGC NET Online Coaching

We hope this UGC NET Study Notes on Factories Act, 1948 helped you. Thanks!


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