UGC NET Study Notes on Job Analysis – Part 2

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 13th, 2023

Approaches to Job Design

A- Traditional Approach- The organisation allocates the duties and responsibilities consistent with the common practices and traditions.

B- Scientific Management Approach- Also called Engineering approach, developed by FW Taylor. Scientific management approach offers the following principles for designing the jobs :

  • Task Fragmentation – breaking tasks into small components in order to improve efficiency.
  • Optimisation – developing the best method to do the task.
  • Standardisation – Standardise the method using time and motion studies.
  • Specialisation – Repeated performance of the work leads to specialisation.
  • Training – The selected workers should be given proper training to ensure efficiency.
  • Responsibility – Each worker should be made responsible for the performance of their task.
  • Monetary Rewards – Economic incentives should be used to reward efficient performances.

These principles end to make the job holders experts in their jobs which leads to higher productivity and low costs.

C- Human Relations Approach

  • Based upon the famous Hawthorne studies conducted during 1924-1933.
  • This approach concerned itself with the impact of employees’ psychological and social needs on productivity.
  • Emphasis was less on technical aspects of the job and more on human needs and relations.

D- Job Characteristics Approach

  • Based on the findings of Elton Mayo, Fredrick Herzberg and other human relations approach.
  • This approach also stresses on human social and psychological factors.

The following central dimensions of the job help in generating a positive psychological state :

  1. Skill Variety – The degree to which the job requires the worker to employ his different skills to efficiently complete the job.
  2. Task identity – The degree to which the job requires completion of an identifiable part of work.
  3. Task Significance – The degree to which the job has an impact on both the work and lives of others who are present both inside and outside the organisation.
  4. Autonomy – The degree of independence, freedom and discretion provided by the job to the individual.
  5. Feedback – The degree to which the job provides the individual with clear information about job performance and outcomes.

E- Socio-Technical Systems approach

  • Takes into consideration both the social and technical aspects of the job.
  • Redesigning jobs according to this method requires a constant combined effort of employees, supervisors and trade union representatives in analysing significant job operations.
  • Job design, according to this approach, involves a systems view of the entire job together with a social and psychological view of the job.


  • The entire job is broken down or divided into small subparts.
  • This is done so that the workers can do these jobs without much-specialised training.
  • Through job simplification, smaller parts of the job can be identified and can be completed simultaneously, thereby saving a lot of time.
  • Motion and time studies are generally used for job simplification.


  • Shifting an employee from one job to another job within a working group, so that there is some variety in the jobs performed and a relief from the boredom of routine jobs.
  • The transfer of job through job rotation is to shift to another job of the same level and status.
  • Herzberg characterised Job rotation as, from one zero to another zero.
  • It is a lateral or horizontal transfer.
  • Job rotation occurs due to situational factors which means shifting an employee from one job to another to meet the needs of the work schedule.


  • Process of increasing the scope of the job of a particular employee by adding more tasks into it.
  • The additional tasks allotted to the employee do not require new skills or talents. They can be performed with a similar set of skills as before.
  • Herzberg characterised Job Enlargement as simply adding a zero to zero.
  • Enlargement is done on the horizontal level.
  • This is not a satisfactory method of job design as it does not increase the depth of a job.


  • Designing the job in a way that the worker gets a greater autonomy for planning and controlling his own performance.
  • Job enrichment is a motivational technique as it emphasises the need of challenging and interesting work.
  • Through job enrichment, an employee gains a feeling of higher status, influence and power.
  • Job enrichment rearranges the parts of the job so that the workers have more variety, a higher amount of responsibility, autonomy in decision making, more exposure etc and also eliminates boring and dissatisfactory tasks.

Job Enlargement vs Job Enrichment

  • Job enlargement involves a horizontal expansion of job while Job enrichment involves a vertical expansion of job.
  • The purpose of Job enlargement is to remove repetitive jobs thereby reducing monotony while the purpose of job enrichment is to make the job more lively, challenging and satisfying.
  • Job enlargement doesn’t call for a higher level of skill as it is the horizontal expansion of the job while Job enrichment requires development or utilisation of additional skill sets.


  • Dejobbing refers to widening the responsibilities of the departments and personnel in a company and also encouraging the employees to go beyond their job description and not limit themselves within the scope of their job description.
  • Dejobbing requires moving away from the traditional pyramid style organisation to a flatter organisational style. It also aims to make the organisation boundaryless to encourage employees to widen the scope of their job.

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