UGC NET Study Notes on Group Dynamics

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 13th, 2023

In the following article, you can have the detailed UGC NET Study Notes on Group Dynamics.  The topic is quite important in the UGC NET Preparations, candidates can refer below for Study Notes on Group Dynamics. Candidates can also refer to the table below for the Best Books for UGC NET Labour Welfare.                                                                                                                                                                                                     

What are Group Dynamics?

  • A group is any number of people who, interact with one another, have a common purpose or objective, and are aware of one another.
  • Group dynamics is concerned with the attitudes and behavioural patterns of a group. It can be used as a means for problem-solving, teamwork, and to become more innovative and productive as an organization.
  • Group dynamics is the system of a behavioural and psychological process occurring within a social group. It deals with the interactions and forces among group members in a social situation.
  • Kurt Lewin introduced the term Group Dynamics to mean the interaction of force among group members in a social situation.

Types of Groups

1- Formal Groups:

  • Formal groups are established by the organisation to accomplish specific tasks.
  • These groups include command group which consists of the managers, their direct subordinates, and committees and task forces which are created to carry out specific organisational assignments or activities.

2- Informal Groups:

  • These groups are formed within the structure of the organisation but by members themselves and not by the organisation.
  • Informal groups do not have a formally defined structure of the relationship between the group members.

3- Primary Groups:

  • Primary groups are those which are characterised by intimate, face to face association and cooperation.
  • Example of a primary group is family and the peer group.

4- Membership Groups:

  • Membership groups refer to those groups to which the individual actually belongs.
  • Examples: Clubs, Cooperation societies, workers unions, etc.

5- Reference Groups:

  • These are the ones with which an individual identifies or to which he would like to belong.
  • Example: People joining team Anna protests from reference groups.

6- The In-group:

  • The in-group represents a social group of individuals holding prevailing values in a society.
  • Examples: Members of a team, family members.

7- The Out-group:

  • The out-groups are the groups that are looked upon as subordinate in the future. It is a group with which an individual does not identify.

Stages of Group Development

Psychologist Bruce Tuckman proposed the stages of group development in 1965.



  • Stage 1 (Forming): The team establishes ground rules, members are treated as strangers. There is a high dependence on the leader for guidance and direction.
  • Stage 2 (Storming): Members start communicating with each other, but they still view themselves as individuals. The purpose is clear, but team relationships are blurry.
  • Stage 3 (Norming): In this stage, role and responsibilities are clear and well understood. Commitment and unity to team goals are strong. The team discusses and develops its processes as well as its working style.
  • Stage 4 (Performing): The team is committed to performing well; it focuses on being strategic. The team has shared vision and is able to stand on its own feet with no interference or participation from the leader.
  • Stage 5 (Adjourning): If a group has fulfilled its goals and objectives, it will move into the adjourning stage.

Theories of Group Formation

There are four important theories of group formation, namely, Propinquity theory, Homan’s theory, Balance theory, and Exchange theory.

1- Propinquity theory

  • Propinquity means nearness. This theory states that individuals form groups or affiliate with one another because of spatial or geographical proximity. Therefore, in organizations, individuals working together tend to form a group more easily as compared to forming it with individuals working at a distant place.
  • Nearness is only a facilitating factor and not the very reason of group formation. The drawback of this theory is that it does not explain the other important and complex aspects of group formation.

2- Homan’s Theory

  • Homan’s theory was propounded by George C. Homans. This theory is based on three elements, namely, activities, interaction and sentiments.
  • According to Homans, these three elements are related to one another. The activities are the assigned tasks to people. The required interaction takes place when the activity takes place or is influenced by the activity of any other person, and sentiments are the feelings of a person towards others.

3- Theodore Newcomb’s Balance Theory

  • As per this theory, groups are formed on the basis of the attraction of people towards those having similar attitudes and values. They try to maintain a balanced relationship between the attraction and the common attitudes and values.

4- Exchange theory of group formation

  • This theory was propounded by Thaibaunt and Kelly. It is based on Rewards and Costs outcomes of the interaction between employees. The Reward for joining a group is in the form of gratifying the needs and cost is incurred due to anxiety, frustration, embarrassment and fatigue.

Some important concepts in Group Theory:

  • Social Loafing: This concept states that people exert less effort on a task when working collectively than when they work individually.
  • Group Demography: The extent to which members of the group share a common demographic attribute, such as age, sex, race, education level, in the organisation, and the impact of this attribute on turnover.
  • Cohorts: Those individuals who, as part of a group, hold a common attribute.
  • Cohesiveness: Extent to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group.

Groupthink and Group shift

These are the two by-products of conformity in group decision making. These two phenomena have the capacity to affect the group’s ability to evaluate alternatives objectively and arrive at a quality decision solution.

  • Groupthink: This term was coined by the social psychologist Irving Janis in 1972. It is a phenomenon wherein members of a group make decisions based on the pressure they get from the group and put aside their opinions and beliefs
  • Group shift: In this phenomenon, the initial positions of individual members of a group change to adopt a more extreme position due to the influence of the group. It states that individuals make riskier decisions in a group than making the same alone. This is mainly because the risk is shared in the group.

 How to Prepare for UGC NET Labour Welfare?

Students attempting for UGC NET Exam as Labour Welfare for paper 2 have to prepare every topic from the syllabus very carefully. Below are some tips to Crack UGC NET Labour Welfare Exam. 

  • All the candidates are suggested to solve UGC NET Previous Year Papers. Previous Year Papers give you an idea of what to expect in the examination, it prepares you for the types of questions asked in the examination. 
  • UGC NET Mock Tests are also proven to be a great tool for preparation.
  • Maintain a proper schedule for the preparations. 
  • Make weekly and monthly goals and try to adhere to them. 
  • Keep making short notes of the topics, they will help you in quick revision at last.

Best Books to Prepare for UGC NET Labour Welfare 

Below are the Best Books to prepare UGC NET Labour Welfare. These will help the candidate to start the preparations easily. 

Serial No.

List of best books for Labour Welfare


Trueman’s UGC NET HRM/Human Resource Management & Labour Welfare


Human Resource Management by Biju Varkkey, Gary Dessler


Industrial Relations, Trade Unions and Labour Legislation by P.R.N. Sinha, Indu Bala Sinha


International Human Resource Management by Edwards and Rees


Human Resource Management by K Aswathappa


Human Resource Management by Stephen P. Robbins


Industrial Relations and Labour Laws by S C Srivastava


Organizational Behaviour by Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge

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