- Major HRM models include Fombrun’s human resource cycle model, The Harvard model, The 5 P’s model, The guest model, The Warwick Model and The Ulrich model.
- These models furnish an analytical framework for learning situational factors, stakeholders, strategic choice levels and competence in the HR context.
- It has become necessary for each organisation to adopt an approach or model in order to obtain the primary goals related to human resource including recruitment and selection of appropriate candidates, delivering quality and relevant training and development to employees, monitoring and analysing the performance of employees, performance appraisals for employee motivation, and designing and practising employee welfare programmes.
A. Fombrun’s human resource cycle model (1984)
- This model focuses on strategic human resource management that emphasises on the management of formal groups, and the new employees.
- The elements of the model consist of selection, performance appraisal, development of employees, and rewards, this model focuses on these four functions and its interrelatedness.
- The major objective of the model was to regulate the formal structure in the organizational hierarchy, new strategies and policies with the human resource system.
B. The Harvard Model (1992)
- Boxall and Beer from Harvard believed in the combination of systems as bureaucrats, markets and clan approach.
- Their main aim of the model is to find the solution to the problem of human resource management of traditional and routine functions by using modern techniques and strategic approach.
- This model comprises six components of HRM: stakeholders interests, situational factors, HRM policy choices, HR outcomes, long-term approach and a feedback process.
- In today’s globalized era, in which companies are experiencing fluctuation in economies, the latest technologies and fluctuating customer demands, organizations are compelled to implement the Harvard model.
C. The 5 P’s Model (1992)
Developed by Randall S. Schuler, this model emphasizes balancing the five principles which result in gaining an organisation’s success.
- HR policies – policies for guiding activities on employee-related business issues and for the development of strategic Human Relation programmes and practices.
- HR programmes – It includes coordination in HR policies targeted at initiating and managing organizational change
- HR philosophy – an ethical statement of human resources should be treated, their role in goal achievement, and management.
- HR processes – the formal and official steps and methods for implementation of strategic plans and policies.
- HR practices –Practices consist of resourcing, training and development, performance appraisal and reward management, employee relations management.
D. The David Guest Model (1997)
- In this model, David Guest stated that there are some specific strategies carried out by human resource managers, which leads to behavioural, performance and financial rewards.
- This model highlights six components of human resource: HR strategy, HR practices, HR outcomes, behavioural outcomes, performance outcomes and financial outcomes.
E. The Warwick Model (1990)
- The Warwick model was developed by Hendry and Pettigrew of the University of Warwick, they emphasize on five elements:
- Outer context (macro-environmental factors)
- Inner context ( microenvironmental factors)
- Business strategy content
- HRM context
- HRM content
- This model analyses essential environmental influences on human resource management. It highlights the connection between the environmental factors and prospects how human resource management accepts and adapts to changes in the strategic context.
F. The Ulrich Model (1995)
- It is also known as the Business Partner Model, developed by Dave Ulrich who was also called as the father of modern HR.
- This Model emphasises on organising and managing all HR functions into four central functions: strategic partner, change agent, administrative expert, and employee champion/ advocate.
- Instead of focusing on processes and functions, this model focuses more on employees of the organisation and the roles and responsibilities they enact in the grand scheme of functions.
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